domingo, 28 de septiembre de 2014

Marsupiales de ayer y hoy

`Marsupialia` obra en la que exploro aspectos de la maternidad, y que incluye un retrato, forzosamente póstumo, del tilacino (marsupial carnívoro extinto a principios de siglo) del Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid. Debajo un boceto y una foto de archivo del último tilacino vivo.



-from wikipedia-
Thylacinus cynocephalus
El lobo marsupial o tilacino (nombre científico Thylacinus cynocephalus), también conocido como lobo de Tasmaniatigre de Tasmania y tilacín, fue unmarsupial carnívoro originado en el Holoceno. Era nativo de Australia y Nueva Guinea y se cree que se extinguió en el siglo XX. Se trataba del último miembro viviente de su género (Thylacinus), viviendo los otros miembros en tiempos prehistóricos a partir de principios del Mioceno.
El lobo marsupial se extinguió en el continente australiano miles de años antes de la llegada de los colonos europeos, pero sobrevivió en Tasmania junto con
otrasespecies endémicas, incluyendo el diablo de Tasmania. Generalmente suele culparse de su extinción a la caza intensiva, incentivada por recompensas, pero podrían haber contribuido otros factores, como por ejemplo las enfermedades, la introducción de los perros, o la ocupación de su hábitat por los humanos. Aún cuando se lo considera oficialmente extinto, todavía hay quienes dicen haberlo visto.
Como los tigres y lobos del Hemisferio Norte, de los cuales heredó dos de sus nombres comunes, el lobo marsupial era un depredador alfa. Siendo un marsupial, no tenía relación con estos mamíferos placentarios, pero debido a la evolución convergente, presentaba la misma forma general y las mismas adaptaciones. Su pariente vivo más próximo es el diablo de Tasmania.
Es probable que el lobo marsupial se extinguiera del continente australiano hace aproximadamente dos mil años (quizá en Nueva Guinea). Se culpa de la extinción a la competencia con los humanos y dingos. Aún así, hay dudas sobre el impacto de los dingos, pues las dos especies podrían no haber competido directamente dado que el dingo es principalmente un predador diurno, mientras que se cree que el lobo marsupial cazaba mayoritariamente por la noche, aunque, dado que compartían presas, sí que pudieron competir por el alimento. Ante una hipotética confrontación directa cabe destacar que el lobo marsupial era más robusto, cosa que le habría dado una ventaja en combates entre ejemplares de ambas especies.
Las pinturas rupestres del Parque Nacional Kakadu muestran claramente que los lobos marsupiales eran cazados por los humanos primitivos, y se cree que los dingos y lobos marsupiales podrían haber competido por las mismas presas, pese al distinto carácter cronobiológico de actividad de ambos. Sus hábitats se solapaban claramente: se han encontrado restos subfósiles de lobos marsupiales en proximidad a restos de dingos. La adopción del dingo como compañero de cacería por los aborígenes habría incrementado la presión sobre el lobo marsupial.
Aún cuando ya llevaban mucho tiempo extinguidos en el continente australiano cuando llegaron los colonos europeos, los lobos marsupiales sobrevivieron hasta la década de 1930 en Tasmania. En tiempos de la primera colonia europea, la zona de población más densa de los lobos marsupiales era el norte de la isla. Desde los primeros días de colonización europea, los lobos marsupiales eran poco comunes, pero poco a poco se los empezó a culpar de numerosos ataques a ovejas; esto llevó a ofrecer recompensas en un intento de controlar su número. Una compañía, la Van Diemen's Land Company, ofreció recompensas por matar lobos marsupiales desde 1830, y entre 1888 y 1909 el gobierno de Tasmania pagó 1 libra esterlina (£) por cabeza (10 chelines por los cachorros). En total se pagaron 2.184 recompensas, pero se cree que se mataron muchos más lobos marsupiales de los que se reclamaron. Su extinción suele atribuirse a estos esfuerzos constantes de los granjeros y cazadores de recompensas. Aun así, es probable que múltiples factores contribuyeran a su declive y eventual extinción, incluyendo la competencia con perros salvajes (introducidos por los colonos), la erosión de su hábitat, la extinción de especies que eran sus presas, y una enfermedad parecida al moquillo que afectaba a muchos ejemplares en cautiverio en aquellos tiempos.
En cuanto a la competencia con los zorros como uno de los factores implicados en la extinción, cabe destacar que estos animales fueron introducidos por vez primera en 1864 y de nuevo en 2000; su posible presencia en estado silvestre en Tasmania es muy seriamente tenida en cuenta, aún con los mínimos indicios de la misma. Claro que la Fox Free Tasmanian Taskforce, asociación implicada en la búsqueda de tilacinos y en la erradicación de los zorros, recibe financiación del gobierno y no realiza ya esfuerzos en la búsqueda del lobo marsupial. De este modo, se sugiere que la dificultad de encontrar zorros en las regiones salvajes de Tasmania parece indicar que hay alguna posibilidad de que el lobo marsupial haya sobrevivido lejos del contacto con los humanos.
Fuera por el motivo que fuese, el animal ya era extremamente raro en estado salvaje a finales de los años veinte. Hubo varios intentos de salvar la especie de la extinción. Los registros del comité de gestión de Wilsons Promontory de 1908 recomendaban la reintroducción de lobos marsupiales en diferentes lugares adecuados de Victoria. En 1928, el comité de consejo de la fauna nativa de Tasmania recomendó proteger a todos los lobos marsupiales que quedaban, en zonas como por ejemplo Arthur River y Pieman River, al oeste de Tasmania.
El último lobo marsupial salvaje conocido fue abatido en 1930 por un granjero denominado Wilf Batty a Mawbanna, al nordeste de Tasmania. El animal (supuestamente un macho) había sido visto cerca de los gallineros de Batty desde hacía algunas semanas.

http://www.arkive.org/thylacine/thylacinus-cynocephalus/
Thylacine description
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Dasyuromorphia
Family Thylacinidae
Genus Thylacinus (1)
The thylacine was the largest marsupial carnivore but it is now widely believed to be extinct (1). Despite similarities with canids such as the wolf, the thylacine was extremely distinctive, and the canine appearance was offset by the tapered hindquaters, relatively short legs and broad-based tail (2), which cannot be wagged from side-to-side (3). The short, coarse fur was a dirty yellow-brown with 13 to 19 transverse brown stripes running from the upper back to the base of the tail (4); animals from highland areas had a richer cinnamon-brown coat (3). There were lighter patches of fur (4) surrounding the eyes and near the erect, rounded ears (5). The belly was cream coloured, females carried a backwards-opening pouch (4), and males possessed a pseudo pouch in the form of a fold of skin that protected the testes when moving quickly through low bushland (3). The thylacine was renowned for its ability to open its jaw remarkably wide; whilst it is highly unlikely that this yawn was as wide as is sometimes quoted (180°), the gape was still the widest of any mammal (4), and is surpassed only by that of the snake (3). This species is a classic example of 'convergent evolution'; it is a marsupial mammal that closely resembles the placental canids, especially the wolf from which one of its common names is derived, due to the similarities in their way of life (6).Also known asTasmanian tiger, Tasmanian wolf.FrenchLoup Marsupial.SpanishLobo De Tasamania, Lobo Marsupial.SizeTail length: 50 - 65 cm (2)Head-body length: 1 - 1.3 m (2)Shoulder height: 56 cm (3)Weight25 - 35 kg (3)
Thylacinus cynocephalus — Thylacine
For information to assist proponents in referral, environmental assessments and compliance issues, refer to the Policy Statements and Guidelines (where available), the Conservation Advice (where available) or the Listing Advice (where available).
In addition, proponents and land managers should refer to the Recovery Plan (where available) or the Conservation Advice (where available) for recovery, mitigation and conservation information.
Legal Status and Documents
EPBC Act Listing Status Listed as Extinct
Adopted/Made Recovery Plans
Federal Register of
Legislative Instruments Declaration under s178, s181, and s183 of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 - List of threatened species, List of threatened ecological communities and List of threatening processes(Commonwealth of Australia, 2000) [Legislative Instrument].
State Government
Documents and Websites
TAS: Tasmanian Tiger or Thylacine (Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, 2014c) [Internet].
TAS: Thylacine, or Tasmanian tiger, Thylacinus cynocephalus (Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service (Tas. PWS), 2010) [Internet].
TAS: Thylacinus cynocephalus (Thylacine): Species Management Profile for Tasmania's Threatened Species Link (Threatened Species Section (TSS), 2014uq) [State Action Plan].
State Listing Status
TAS: Listed as Extinct (Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 (Tasmania): September 2012 list)
Non-statutory Listing Status
IUCN: Listed as Extinct (Global Status: IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: 2014.3 list )
NGO: Listed as Extinct (The action plan for Australian mammals 2012)
Naming
Scientific name Thylacinus cynocephalus [342]
Family Thylacinidae:Polyprotodonta:Mammalia:Chordata:Animalia
Species author (Harris, 1808)
Infraspecies author
Reference
Distribution Map
Distribution map Species Distribution Map not available for this taxon.
Taxonomy
Scientific name: Thylacinus cynocephalus
Common name: Thylacine
Other names: Tasmanian Tiger
Description
The Thylacine was a marsupial that bore superficial resemblance to a dog. The most distinguishing feature of this animal were the 13–19 dark brown stripes over the back, beginning at the rear of the body and extending onto the tail. The tail was thick at the base and very stiff, giving the impression that it was a continuation of the body. The hair was short and dense, usually fawn to sandy brown, but varying in colour from deep brown to grey. The female had a large pouch. The species had prominent canine teeth as well as shearing molar teeth. There was some degree of sexual dimorphism, with males having a slightly longer body length than females. The average nose-to-tail length for adult males was 162.6 cm, compared to 153.7 cm for females (Guiler 1985; Paddle 2000; Tasmanian DPIW 2007).
The Thylacine was largely silent, its vocalisations being limited to an occasional 'terrier like' bark when hunting and a series of husky barks when excited in captivity. Adults could weigh anything from 15–35 kg (although recorded weights of live animals were few) (Flannery 1990a). The species was shy and secretive and always avoided contact with humans. Despite the common name, 'tiger', it had a quiet, nervous temperament. Captured animals generally gave up without a struggle and many died suddenly, apparently from shock (Guiler 1985; Tasmanian DPIW 2007).
Australian Distribution
Approximately 4000 years ago the Thylacine was widespread throughout New Guinea and most of mainland Australia, as well as Tasmania. Its extinction coincided closely with the arrival of the dingo in Australia and the wild dog in New Guinea. Dingoes never reached Tasmania, and most scientists see this as the main reason for the Thylacine's survival there. The most recent, well-dated occurrence of a Thylacine on the mainland is a carbon-dated fossil from Murray Cave in Western Australia, which is around 3100 years old. Further evidence for the previous presence of Thylacines on the mainland includes Aboriginal rock-paintings of a striped animal (almost certainly a Thylacine) in the Kimberley region of Western Australia and the Northern Territory (Flannery 1990a; Guiler 1985).
The Thylacine was widely distributed in Tasmania before European arrival. The first definite reference was that of Paterson in 1805, near Yorketown, on the Tamar River in northern Tasmania (Flannery 1990a). At the time of the first settlement, the heaviest distributions of this species were in the north-east, north-west and north-midland regions of Tasmania (Australian Museum 1999b).
Surveys Conducted
There have been numerous expeditions and searches for the Thylacine, beginning in 1937 and culminating in 1993. These included searches by leading Australian naturalists such as David Fleay, who searched for months in 1945–46, and notable Thylacine experts such as Eric Guiler (Flannery 1990a; Guiler 1980). None of these expeditions has produced evidence that Thylacines still exist. There have been hundreds of sightings since 1936, many of which may have been clear cases of misidentification. However, in a detailed study of sightings that occurred between 1934 and 1980, Smith (1980) concluded that of a total of 320 sightings, just under half could be considered good sightings. Nonetheless, all sightings have remained inconclusive (Tasmanian DPIW 2007). The results of a few of these searches are given below (Tasmanian DPIW 2007):
1937 - Sergeant Summers leads a search in the north-west of the State, recording many recent sightings by other persons in a large area between the Arthur and Pieman Rivers, although the party itself did not see any Thylacines. He recommends a sanctuary in that area.
1945 - Well-known naturalist David Fleay searches the Jane River to Lake St Clair area, finding possible Thylacine footprints.
1959 - Eric Guiler leads a search in the far north-west, an area which produced many bounties, and finds what appeared to be Thylacine footprints.
1963 - Eric Guiler leads a search in the Sandy Cape area but finds no evidence.
1968 - Jeremy Griffiths, James Malley and Bob Brown embark on a major search. Although they collect reports of sightings, they find no evidence of the Thylacine.
1980 - Parks and Wildlife Officers, Steven Smith and Adrian Pyrke, search a wide area of the State using three automatic cameras. No evidence of Thylacines is found.
1982–83 - Parks and Wildlife Officer, Nick Mooney, undertakes an extensive but unsuccessful search to confirm the 1982 sighting reported by Hans Naarding near the Arthur River in the State's north-west.
1984 - A search in Tasmania's highlands by Tasmanian Wildlife Park owner, Peter Wright, fails to turn up conclusive evidence.
1988–93 - Separate photographic searches by wildlife photographer, Dave Watts and Ned Terry, fail to record a Thylacine.
Population Information
The Thylacine is presumed extinct. It was probably never an abundant species, despite its wide distribution, partly due to its position at the top of the food chain (Flannery 1990a).
Habitat
The Thylacine appeared to occupy most types of habitat except dense rainforest. Open eucalypt forest was thought to be prime habitat (Flannery 1990a).
Life Cycle
Little is known of the lifespan of the Thylacine. However, a captive individual lived in the London Zoo for nearly eight and a half years and was probably at least a year old when obtained, making it more than nine years old when it died. A second specimen lived for 12 years at Beaumaris Zoo, Tasmania (Flannery 1990a). Based on this information their life expectancy in the wild has been estimated at five to seven years (Tasmanian DPIW 2007). However, since the related Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) lives longer in the wild than in captivity, it has been postulated that the lifespan of the Thylacine in the wild may have been 12–14 years (Guiler 1985).
The Thylacine had an extended breeding season from winter to spring, with indications that some breeding toook place through out the year (Guiler 1985). The maximum number of young in a season was four although the average litter was probably three. The Thylacine, like all marsupials, was tiny and hairless when born. Newborns crawled into the mother's pouch and attached themselves to one of the four teats (Tasmanian DPIW 2007). Females carried the young in the backwards-facing pouch for up to three months (Dixon 1989). The pouch enlarged and hung down low as the young grew (Flannery 1990a). Large pouch-young had fur with stripes. When old enough to leave the pouch, the young stayed in a lair such as a deep rocky cave, well-hidden nest or hollow log, whilst the mother hunted (Tasmanian DPIW 2007).
Much of the behaviour of this species is unknown. The Thylacine has been described as a social species, living and hunting in small family groups, but some texts state that the young left the mother once they were able to hunt independantly (Flannery 1990a; Paddle 2000).
Feeding
The Thylacine was exclusively carnivorous. Its stomach was muscular with an ability to distend to allow the animal to eat large amounts of food at one time, probably an adaptation to compensate for long periods when hunting was unsuccessful and food scarce (Dixon 1998). Its prey included Bennett's Wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus), the Long-nosed Potoroo (Potorous tridactylus), the Tasmanian Pademelon (Thylogale billardierii), the Eastern Grey Kangaroo (Macropus giganteus tasmaniensis), wombats, and a variety of bandicoots, bats and birds. A favourite prey animal may have been the once common Tasmanian Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis), as both dingoes and foxes have been noted to hunt the Emu on the mainland (Pople et al. 2000). They were said to eat carrion when live prey was not available, although some authorities dispute this. It was also said to have readily included domestic stock in its diet (Flannery 1990a).
The Thylacine was not a fast runner and probably caught its prey by exhausting it during a long pursuit. During long distance pursuits Thylacines probably relied more on scent than any other sense (Flannery 1990a; Guilder 1985). They emerged to hunt during the evening, night and early morning (Tasmanian DPIW 2007) and tended to retreat to the hills and forest for shelter during the day (Heberle 2004).
Movement Patterns
Although the Thylacine was mainly nocturnal, it was sighted moving during the day and captive animals were recorded basking in the sun (Flannery 1990a).
Thylacines had a typical home range of between 40 and 80 km² (Guiler 2006). It appears to have kept to its home range without being territorial (Guiler 1985; Paddle 2000).
Threats
The reasons for the Thylacine's extinction are still disputed. Some researchers have suggested that disease was instrumental in reducing its numbers although there is little evidence for this. The species decline was probably accelerated when they came into competition with domestic dogs and were hunted by humans (Flannery 1990a; Guiler 1985).
The introduction of sheep in 1824 led to conflict between the settlers and Thylacines (Guiler 1985; Tasmanian DPIW 2007). It seems likely that hunting by Europeans, firstly by the Van Dieman Land Company and private landowners, and then as a result of bounties paid by the Tasmanian government, was a significant factor in the extinction of the Thylacine. The Tasmanian government bounty was one pound for each adult scalp and ten shillings for sub-adults. Bounties were collected on 2184 animals. The government bounty numbers quoted do not include those Thylacines killed for private landholders, who also offered rewards (Flannery 1990a; Guiler 1985).
The list below records the decline of the species (Tasmanian DPIW 2007):
1830 - Van Diemens Land Company introduced a Thylacine bounty
1888 - Tasmanian Parliament placed a price of £1 on Thylacine's head
1909 - Government bounty scheme terminated: 2184 bounties paid
1910 - Thylacines rare - sought by zoos around the world
1926 - London Zoo bought its last Thylacine for £150
1933 - Last Thylacine captured, Florentine Valley, sold to Hobart Zoo
1936 - World's last captive Thylacine died in Hobart Zoo (7 September 1936)
1936 - Thylacine added to the list of protected wildlife
1986 - Thylacine declared extinct by international standards
Although its extinction is generally attributed to these relentless efforts by farmers and bounty hunters (Tasmanian PWS 2006), it is likely that multiple factors led to its decline and eventual extinction. These include competition with wild dogs introduced by settlers (Boyce 2006), loss of habitat, the concurrent extinction of prey species, and a distemper-like disease may also have affected the species (Guiler 2006; Paddle 2000; Tasmanian DPIW 2007).
There seems to have been little public pressure to preserve the Thylacine, nor was much concern expressed by scientists at the decline of this species. A notable exception was T.T. Flynn, professor of biology at the University of Tasmania. In 1914, he was sufficiently concerned about the scarcity of the Thylacine to suggest that some should be captured and placed on an island. However, it was not until 1929, with the species on the very edge of extinction, that the Animals and Birds Protection Board passed a motion protecting Thylacines only for the month of December, which was thought to be their prime breeding season (Flannery 1990a). Official protection of the species by the Tasmanian government was introduced on 10 July 1936, 59 days before the last known specimen died in captivity (Paddle 2000).
There was only one successful attempt to breed Thylacines in captivity, at Melbourne Zoo in 1899 (Paddle 2000). This was despite the large numbers that went through some zoos, particularly those in Hobart and London. The famous naturalist John Gould foresaw the Thylacine's demise when he published his Mammals of Australia between 1848 and 1863: 'When the comparatively small island of Tasmania becomes more densely populated, and its primitive forests are intersected with roads from the eastern to the western coasts, the numbers of this singular animal will speedily diminish, extermination will have its full sway, and it will then, like the wolf of England and Scotland, be recorded as an animal of the past' (Gould 1863). The last known wild Thylacine to be killed was shot by a farmer in the north-east of the state in 1930 (The Thylacine Museum 2006). The last known Thylacine died in Hobart Zoo on 7th September, 1936 (Tasmanian DPIW 2007).
Threat Abatement and Recovery
The Australian Museum in Sydney began a cloning project in 1999 (Leigh 2002). The goal was to use genetic material from specimens taken and preserved in the early 20th century to clone new individuals and restore the species. Several noted microbiologists dismissed the project as a public relations stunt (Miller 2002).
The researchers had some initial success as they were able to extract good-quality DNA from the specimens (Salleh 2000). However, on 15 February 2005, the museum announced that it was stopping the project after tests showed the DNA retrieved from the specimens had been too badly degraded to be usable (ABC News Online 2005; Smith 2005). In May 2005, Professor Michael Archer, the University of NSW Dean of Science, former director of the Australian Museum and evolutionary biologist, announced that the project was being restarted by a group of interested universities and a research institute (Dasey 2005; Skatssoon 2005). A Thylacine gene has since been extracted from alcohol-preserved Thylacine pouch young and a dried adult skin. This gene was inserted into a mouse genome, where it was able to function normally as the mouse fetus developed (Pask et al. 2008).
The International Thylacine Specimen Database (ITSD) was completed in April 2005 and is the culmination of a four-year research project to catalogue and digitally photograph, if possible, all known surviving Thylacine specimen material held within museum, university and private collections. The master records are held by the Zoological Society of London (World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1996).
Threat Class Summary
The following table lists known and perceived threats to this species. Threats are based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) threat classification version 1.1.

http://www.parks.tas.gov.au
Thylacine, or Tasmanian Tiger, Thylacinus cynocephalus
The thylacine is one of the most fabled animals in the world. Yet, despite its fame, it is one of the least understood of Tasmania's native animals. European settlers were puzzled by it, feared it and killed it when they could. After only a century of white settlement the animal had been pushed to the brink of extinction. Full details of the demise of the thylacine can be found at ourthreatened species site.
Description
The thylacine looked like a large, long dog, with stripes, a heavy stiff tail and a big head. Its scientific name, Thylacinus cynocephalus, means pouched dog with a wolfs head. Fully grown it measured about 180 cm (6 ft) from nose to tail tip, stood about 58 cm (2 ft) high at the shoulder and weighed up to 30 kg. The short, soft fur was brown except for 13 - 20 dark brown-black stripes that extended from the base of the tail to almost the shoulders. The stiff tail became thicker towards the base and appeared to merge with the body.
Thylacines were usually mute, but when anxious or excited made a series of husky, coughing barks. When hunting, they gave a distinctive terrier-like, double yap, repeated every few seconds. Unfortunately there are no recordings.
The thylacine was shy and secretive and always avoided contact with humans. Despite its common name, 'tiger' it had a quiet, nervous temperament compared to its little cousin, the Tasmanian devil. Captured animals generally gave up without a struggle, and many died suddenly, apparently from shock. When hunting, the thylacine relied on a good sense of smell, and stamina. It was said to pursue its prey relentlessly, until the prey was exhausted. The thylacine was rarely seen to move fast, but when it did it appeared awkward. It trotted stiffly, and when pursued, broke into a kind of shambling canter.
Breeding
Aboriginal art depicting thylacine, Kakadu,
Northern Australia (Photo by Ina Johnson)
Breeding is believed to have occurred during winter and spring. A thylacine, like all marsupials, was tiny and hairless when born. It crawled into the mother's rear-opening pouch, and attached itself to one of four teats. Four young could be carried at a time, but the usual litter size was probably three. As the pouch-young grew, the pouch expanded, and became so big that it reached almost to the ground. Large pouch-young had fur with stripes. When old enough to leave the pouch, the young stayed in a lair such as a deep rocky cave, well-hidden nest or hollow log, whilst the mother hunted. Thylacines lived in zoos for up to 9 years, but never bred in captivity. Their life expectancy in the wild was probably 5-7 years.
Diet
The thylacine was a meat-eater. In fact, the world's largest marsupial carnivore since the extinction ofThylacoleo the marsupial 'lion'. Its diet is believed to have consisted largely of wallabies, but included various small animals and birds. Since European settlement, the thylacine also preyed upon sheep and poultry, although the extent of this was much exaggerated. Occasionally, the thylacine scavenged. In captivity, thylacines were fed on dead rabbits and wallabies, which they devoured entirely, as well as beef and mutton.
Distribution and habitat
Fossils and Aboriginal rock paintings show that the thylacine once lived throughout Australia and New Guinea. The most recent thylacine remains have been dated as being about 2 200 years old. Predation and competition from the dingo may have contributed to the thylacine's disappearance from mainland Australia and New Guinea.
Bass Strait protected a relict population of thylacines in Tasmania. When Europeans arrived in 1803, thylacines were widespread in Tasmania. Their preferred habitat was a mosaic of dry eucalypt forest, wetlands and grasslands. They emerged to hunt on grassy plains and open woodlands during the evening, night and early morning.
Why are they extinct?
The arrival of European settlers marked the start of a tragic period of conflict that led to the thylacine's extinction. The introduction of sheep in 1824 led to conflict between the settlers and thylacines.
1830 Van Diemens Land Co. introduced a thylacine bounties.
1888 Tasmanian Parliament placed a price of £1 on thylacine's head.
1909 Government bounty scheme terminated. 2184 bounties paid.
1910 Thylacines rare -- sought by zoos around the world.
1926 London Zoo bought its last thylacine for £150.
1933 Last thylacine captured, Florentine Valley, sold Hobart Zoo.
1936 World's last captive thylacine died in Hobart Zoo, ( 7/9/36).
1936 Tasmanian tiger added to the list of protected Wildlife.
1986 Thylacine declared extinct by international standards.
Do they still exist?
In 1863, John Gould, a famous naturalist, predicted that the Tasmanian tiger was doomed to extinction:
When the comparatively small island of Tasmania becomes more densely populated, and its primitive forests are intersected with roads from the eastern to the western coast, the numbers of this singular animal will speedily diminish, extermination will have its full sway, and it will then, like the Wolf in England and Scotland, be recorded as an animal of the past...John Gould, 1863
Every effort was made, by snaring, trapping, poisoning and shooting, to fulfil his prophecy. Bounty records indicate that a sudden decline in thylacine numbers occurred early in the 20th century. Hunting and habitat destruction leading to population fragmentation, are believed to have been the main causes of extinction. The remnant population was further weakened by a distemper-like disease.
The last known thylacine died in Hobart Zoo on 7th September, 1936.
Sightings and Searches
Since 1936, no conclusive evidence of a thylacine has been found. However, the incidence of reported thylacine sightings has continued. Most sightings occur at night, in the north of the State, in or near areas where suitable habitat is still available. Although the species is now considered to be 'probably extinct', these sightings provide some hope that the thylacine may still exist.
There have been hundreds of sightings since 1936, many of which may have been clear cases of mis-identification. However, in a detailed study of sightings between 1934 and 1980, Steven Smith concluded that of a total of 320 sightings, just under half could be considered good sightings. Nonetheless, all sightings have remained inconclusive.
Interestingly, just as many sightings of equally good quality are reported from mainland Australia -- perhaps a comment on the poor evidence that sightings alone represent.
There have been a number of searches for the animal. None of these searches have been successful in proving the continued existence of the animal. The results of a few of these searches are given below:
1937 - Seargent Summers leads a search in the north-west of he state, recording many recent sightings by other persons in a large area between the Arthur and Pieman Rivers, although the party itself did not see any thylacines. He recommends a sanctuary in that area.
1945 - Well-known naturalist David Fleay searches the Jane River to Lake St Clair area, finding possible thylacine footprints.
1959 - Eric Guiler leads a search in the far north-west, an area which produced many bounties and finds what appeared to be thylacine footprints.
1963 - Eric Guiler leads a search in the Sandy Cape area but finds no evidence.
1968 - Jeremy Griffiths, James Malley and Bob Brown embark on a major search. Although they collect reports of sightings, they find no evidence of the thylacine.
1980 - Parks and Wildlife Officers, Steven Smith and Adrian Pyrke, search a wide area of the State using three automatic cameras. No evidence of thylacines is found.
1982-83 - Parks and Wildlife Officer, Nick Mooney, undertakes an extensive but unsuccessful search to confirm the 1982 sighting reported by Hans Naarding near the Arthur River in the State's north-west.
1984 - A search in Tasmania's highlands by Tasmanian Wildlife Park owner, Peter Wright, fails to turn up conclusive evidence.
1988-93 - Separate photographic searches by wildlife photographer, Dave Watts and Ned Terry fail to record a thylacine.
Hope for the Future?
The thylacine is the only mammal to have (possibly) become extinct in Tasmania since European settlement. This is in vivid contrast to mainland Australia, which has the worst record of mammalian extinctions of any country on Earth, with nearly 50% of its native mammals becoming extinct in the past 200 years. Tasmania is unique in that our fauna is abundant, and that the State acts as a refuge - a final hope -- for many species that have recently become extinct on mainland Australia.
Despite our wishes to have a perfect record, the lack of any hard evidence of the thylacine's continued existence supports the increasingly held notion that the species is extinct. Nonetheless, the incidence of sightings introduces a reluctance among some authorities to make empahatic statements on the status of the species. Even if there did exist a few remaining individuals, it is unlikely that such a tiny population would be able to maintain a sufficient genetic diversity to allow for the viable perpetuation of the species in the long-term.
Recent attention has been given to the possibility of cloning the species. However, it is very unlikely to be achievable from a single individual preserved in alchohol. Even if cloning were possible, it should be asked whether such effort and expense is justifiable when many other species are currently threatened with extinction, and when we allow the same processes that threatenen habitats and wildlife to continue.
Perhaps the lesson to be learned from the loss of the thylacine is to ensure that the rich natural heritage of our island State is no longer jeopardised.

martes, 20 de mayo de 2014

martes, 26 de noviembre de 2013

Tortuga Ninja en los premios Figurativas 2013 del MEAM

La obra fue seleccionada para la exposición en el MEAM (MUSEU EUROPEU D'ART MODERN) 
Lo más interesante del 7º Concurso de Pintura y Escultura Figurativas 2013 fue el jurado, formado por los pintores Antonio López García, Gottfried Helnwein, Jacob Collins, Odd Nerdrum, Eduardo Naranjo, el Crítico Tomás Paredes y el galerista Santiago Sánchez Echeberría.
El Autorretrato como Tortuga Ninja se contó entre las 76 obras expuestas, seleccionadas de entre 1776 participantes y creadas por artistas figurativos provenientes de más de 80 países en los cinco continentes.

lunes, 30 de septiembre de 2013

Retrato imaginario de Marie-Sabina, un óleo grande, 132 x 160 cm., basado en un cuadro del siglo 18 de una nena con un trastorno genético de la piel, en una cartela del original reza:

The true picture of Mary Sabina, who was born Oct. 12th 1736 at Matuna, a Plantation belonging to the Jesuits in the city of Cartagena in America, of two negro slaves named Martiniano and Patrona."

a lo que sustituí TRUE por IMAGINARY y listo. La excusa para generar una imagen de Marie-Sabina y sus encantadoras manchas a la edad adulta. El cuadro terminó siendo también más arcaico, aflamencado, menos neoclásico, lo que en principio no está mal. La composición cambió a narrativa al agregarle la pequeña serpiente, que comparte la condición de Marie-Sabina, descubierta bajo una roca.
.

Detalles

BY J TITHONUS PEDNAUD ALBINO THE EGRESS...
ZEBRA PEOPLE – PIEBALD
Piebald is a word often used to describe animals with large black and white spots, however in the golden age of sideshow – and even long before that – it was used to describe human beings with this unusual skin condition.
Contrary to what one may assume, piebalding is not related to albinism and is instead caused by dominant mutations of an altogether different set of genes in a condition known as VitiligoThese mutations can occur in persons of any color. However, persons of African heritage with vitilligo make up the bulk of sideshow performers – often called leopard or zebra people – and are the subject of most of the medical history – most of that early history is filled with racist statements and ignorance.
The first image depicting ‘piebalding’ in a human being occurred in the pages of Histoire naturelle by Buffon. A lithograph features a young girl – around the age of five – standing amid an exhibit of curiosities with a two-tone body. Buffon never met the child first hand but owned an original painting the lithograph was based upon. The painting was done by an unknown Columbian artist in 1740 and bore the following inscription:
The True Picture of Marie- Sabina who was born Oct 12 1736 at Matuna a Plantation belonging to The Jesuits in the City of Cartegena in America of Two Negro Slaves named Martianiano and Patrona.
Despite this rather detailed pedigree, many naturalist of the day insisted that the child was the result of a white and a negresse and that to preserve the honor of the Society of Jesus it was written that both parents were slaves. Later, that diagnosis was changed, by Buffon, to include the union of a slave and an albino.
Despite the fact that many other children were born with piebald – John Richardson Primrose Bobey (1774, Jamaica), Magdeleine (1783, St. Lucia) George Gratton (1808, St. Vincent) and Lisbey (1905, Honduras) – Buffons odd hypothesis stood as fact for nearly two hundred years.
J Tithonus Pednaud
Author, researcher and an expert of the odd, J. Tithonus Pednaud has been chronicling bizarre history and highlighting the lives of those born exceeding different for over a decade.

http://lucyinglis.com/georgian-london/the-variegated-damsel-and-the-beautiful-spott/
The Variegated Damsel and The Beautiful Spotted Boy
By Lucy Inglis November 27, 2009
On the 12th of October 1736, on a Jesuit plantation in Cartagena, Columbia a little girl names Mary Sabina was born to the two negro slaves Patrona and Martiniano.
José Gumilla was a priest in charge of the sick on the plantation, and when Mary Sabina was about six months old, he happened to see her when she was with her mother. He discussed the child’s extraordinary appearance with Patrona. Mary Sabina had piebaldism, resulting in the astonishing spotted effect visible in the two portraits of her in the gallery. Patrona put it down to the fact that she had a pet dog of black and white colouring of which she had become fond whilst pregnant. Gumilla recommended Patrona guard her baby very carefully lest some ignorant person cast the evil eye upon it.
Mary Sabina’s fame rapidly spread. Piebaldism is a form of partial albinism, usually without the attendant eye problems and skin thickening, rendering piebald individuals both extraordinary to look at, and rather beautiful. Particularly fascinating, and striking in black piebald individuals are the contrasting patches of black and white hair. Mary Sabina was undoubtedly a very pretty little girl, as the two images show, but her ultimate fate is unknown. During her life she became something of a local celebrity in Cartagena, and the owners of one of the ‘English factories’ there sent back her portrait to London, where it now hangs in the Royal College of Surgeons Hall. She was used as an illustration for Victorian lectures on partial albinism where she was dubbed, ‘Our Little Variegated Damsel’.
It was only a matter of time before some enterprising individual provided London and its insatiable love of freakery with a piebald individual of its own. In 1808, a little piebald boy was born on St Vincent in the Caribbean. George Alexander Gratton was the child of two black islanders who shared the surname of Gratton (possibly two slaves on the plantation of a man named Gratton, or they may have been married and free). As a baby he was apparently shown to spectators for a dollar per person, but at 15 months old he arrived in Bristol, where he ended up on the care of Marlow-born showman John Richardson, who had apparently paid a thousand guineas for George. The details of this part of his story are hazy enough to be verging on the anecdotal, but there can be no doubt that George ended up in Richardson’s care, and that Richardson had George baptized at Newington Church in Surrey on the 22nd of July, 1810.
George was shown throughout London, and England for the next few years as ‘The Beautiful Spotted Boy’, or the ‘Spotted Negro of Renown’. The piebald dog theory (no doubt drawn from Patrona’s own 80 years before) makes an appearance in the pictures of George, who looks to be a lovely baby. The similarity in the markings on his body show it is the same boy. He died in 1813, of ‘a gathering’ about the jaw, which perhaps was a facial tumour his condition predisposed him to. Richardson had done well out of his purchase, and if his treatment of George in death mirrored his treatment of the boy in life, perhaps little George Alexander Gratton’s short existence was not so very bad: Richardson had George buried in Richardson’s own plot at the All Saints Church on The Causeway in Marlow, and had an attractive and dignified headstone fashioned for him. He was later buried with George, and his own headstone placed behind that of his ‘Beautiful Spotted Boy’, where they remain today.

Supernaturalearth.myfreeforum.org Forum Index -> Freaks
Piebald is a word often used to describe animals with large black and white spots, however in the golden age of sideshow – and even long before that - it was used to describe human beings with this unusual skin condition.
Contrary to what one may assume, piebalding is not related to albinism and is instead caused by dominant mutations of an altogether different set of genes in a condition known as Vitilligo These mutations can occur in persons of any color. However, persons of African heritage with vitilligo make up the bulk of sideshow performers – often called leopard or zebra people - and are the subject of most of the medical history – most of that early history is filled with racist statements and ignorance.
The first image depicting 'piebalding' in a human being occurred in the pages of Histoire naturelle by Buffon. A lithograph features a young girl – around the age of five – standing amid an exhibit of curiosities with a two-tone body. Buffon never met the child first hand but owned an original painting the lithograph was based upon. The painting was done by an unknown Columbian artist in 1740 and bore the following inscription:
The True Picture of Marie- Sabina who was born Oct 12 1736 at Matuna a Plantation belonging to The Jesuits in the City of Cartegena in America of Two Negro Slaves named Martianiano and Patrona.
Despite this rather detailed pedigree, many naturalist of the day insisted that the child was the result of a white and a negresse and that to preserve the honor of the Society of Jesus it was written that both parents were slaves. Later, that diagnosis was changed, by Buffon, to include the union of a slave and an albino.
Despite the fact that many other children were born with piebald – John Richardson Primrose Bobey (1774, Jamaica), Magdeleine (1783, St. Lucia) George Gratton (1808, St. Vincent) and Lisbey (1905, Honduras) – Buffons odd hypothesis stood as fact for nearly two hundred years
.
http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/piebaldism
What is piebaldism?
Piebaldism is a condition characterized by the absence of cells called melanocytes in certain areas of the skin and hair. Melanocytes produce the pigment melanin, which contributes to hair, eye, and skin color. The absence of melanocytes leads to patches of skin and hair that are lighter than normal. Approximately 90 percent of affected individuals have a white section of hair near their front hairline (a white forelock). The eyelashes, the eyebrows, and the skin under the forelock may also be unpigmented.
People with piebaldism usually have other unpigmented patches of skin, typically appearing symmetrically on both sides of the body. There may be spots or patches of pigmented skin within or around the borders of the unpigmented areas.
In most cases, the unpigmented areas are present at birth and do not increase in size or number. The unpigmented patches are at increased risk of sunburn and skin cancer related to excessive sun exposure. Some people with piebaldism are self-conscious about the appearance of the unpigmented patches, which may be more noticeable in darker-skinned people. Aside from these potential issues, this condition has no effect on the health of the affected individual.
How common is piebaldism?
The prevalence of piebaldism is unknown.
What genes are related to piebaldism?
Piebaldism can be caused by mutations in the KIT and SNAI2 genes. Piebaldism may also be a feature of other conditions, such as Waardenburg syndrome; these conditions have other genetic causes and additional signs and symptoms.
The KIT gene provides instructions for making a protein that is involved in signaling within cells. KIT protein signaling is important for the development of certain cell types, including melanocytes. The KITgene mutations responsible for piebaldism lead to a nonfunctional KIT protein. The loss of KIT signaling is thought to disrupt the growth and division (proliferation) and movement (migration) of melanocytes during development, resulting in patches of skin that lack pigmentation.
The SNAI2 gene (often called SLUG) provides instructions for making a protein called snail 2. Research indicates that the snail 2 protein is required during embryonic growth for the development of cells called neural crest cells. Neural crest cells migrate from the developing spinal cord to specific regions in the embryo and give rise to many tissues and cell types, including melanocytes. The snail 2 protein probably plays a role in the formation and survival of melanocytes. SNAI2 gene mutations that cause piebaldism probably reduce the production of the snail 2 protein. Shortage of the snail 2 protein may disrupt the development of melanocytes in certain areas of the skin and hair, causing the patchy loss of pigment.
Piebaldism is sometimes mistaken for another condition called vitiligo, which also causes unpigmented patches of skin. People are not born with vitiligo, but acquire it later in life, and it is not caused by specific genetic mutations. For unknown reasons, in people with vitiligo the immune system appears to damage the melanocytes in the skin.
Read more about the KIT and SNAI2 genes.
Read more about vitiligo and Waardenburg syndrome.
How do people inherit piebaldism?
This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder.
In most cases, an affected person has one parent with the condition.

jueves, 23 de mayo de 2013

Autorretrato como Tortuga Ninja, terminado en Barcelona en el mes de Mayo del 2013
---
Self-portrait as Ninja Turtle, finished in Barcelona on May 2013

150 x 60 cm. óleo sobre tela - oil on canvas

Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cover of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles #1
Publication information
Publisher Mirage Studios[1]
First appearance Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles#1 (May 1984)
Created by Kevin Eastman
Peter Laird
In-story information
Base(s) Manhattan
Member(s) Leonardo
Raphael
Donatello
Michelangelo
The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (often shortened to TMNT or Ninja Turtles) are a fictional team of four teenage anthropomorphic turtles, named after four Renaissance artists, who were trained by their anthropomorphic rat sensei in the art of ninjutsu. From their home in the storm sewers of New York City, they battle petty criminals, evil overlords, mutated animals, and alien invaders while attempting to remain hidden from society. They were created by Kevin Eastman and Peter Laird.
The characters originated in the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles comic book before their expansion into a cartoon series, films, video games, toys, and other general merchandise.[2] During the peak of the franchise's popularity in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it gained considerable worldwide success and fame.[3]
History[edit]
The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles first appeared in an American comic book published by Mirage Studios in 1984 in Dover, New Hampshire. The concept arose from a humorous drawing sketched out by Eastman during a casual evening of brainstorming and bad television with Laird.[4] Using money from a tax refund, together with a loan from Eastman’s uncle, the young artists self-published a single-issue comic intended to parody four of the most popular comics of the early 1980s: Marvel ComicsDaredevil and New Mutants, Dave Sim’s Cerebus, and Frank Miller’s Ronin.[5] The TMNTcomic series has been published in various incarnations by various comic book companies since 1984.
The Turtles started their rise to mainstream success when a licensing agent, Mark Freedman, sought out Eastman and Laird to propose wider merchandising opportunities for the franchise. In 1986, Dark Horse Miniatures produced a set of 15 mm lead figurines. In January 1987, Eastman and Laird visited the offices of Playmates Toys Inc, a small California toy company that wanted to expand into the action figure market. Development was undertaken by a creative team of companies and individuals: Jerry Sachs, ad man of Sachs-Finley Agency, brought together the animators at Murakami-Wolf-Swenson headed by Fred Wolf. Wolf and his team combined concepts and ideas with the Playmates marketing crew, headed by Karl Aaronian, VP of sales Richard Sallis and VP of Playmates Bill Carlson.
Aaronian brought on several designers, and concepteur and writer John C. Schulte and worked out the simple backstory that would live on toy packaging for the entire run of the product and show. Sachs called the high concept pitch "Green Against Brick". The sense of humor was honed with the collaboration of the MWS animation firm's writers. Playmates and their team essentially served as associate producers and contributing writers to the miniseries that was first launched to sell-in the toy action figures. Phrases like "Heroes in a Half Shell" and many of the comical catch phrases and battle slogans ("Turtle Power!") came from the writing and conceptualization of this creative team. As the series developed, veteran writer Jack Mendelsohn came on board as both a story editor and scriptwriter. David Wise, Michael Charles Hill, and Michael Reaves wrote most of the scripts.
The miniseries was repeated 3 times before it found an audience. Once the product started selling, the show got syndicated and picked up and backed by Group W, which funded the next round of animation. The show then went network, on CBS. Accompanied by the popular Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 1987 TV series, and the subsequent action figure line, the TMNT were soon catapulted into pop culture history. At the height of the frenzy, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Turtles' likenesses could be found on a wide range of children's merchandise, from Pez dispensers to skateboards, breakfast cereal, video games, school supplies, linens, towels, cameras, and even toy shaving kits.
While the animated TV series, which lasted for 10 seasons until 1996, was more light-hearted, the comic book series continued in a much darker and grittier tone. In 1990 a live-action feature film was released, with the turtles and Splinter being portrayed by actors in partially animatronic suits created by Jim Henson's Creature Shop. The film became one of the most successful independent films, and spawned two sequels, as well as inspiring a 3D animated film set in the same continuity, which was released in 2007 under the title TMNT. After the end of the cartoon series, a live action series in the vein of the films was created in 1997 in conjunction with Saban Entertainment. The series was called Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation and introduced a fifth, female turtle called Venus De Milo, but was largely unsuccessful and was canceled after one season.
The property lay dormant until in 2003 a new animated TV series also entitled Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles began to air on Fox Box (4Kids TV). The series storyline stuck much closer to the original Mirage comic book series, but was still less violent. It lasted for seven seasons and 156 episodes, ending in February 2009.
On October 21, 2009, it was announced that cable channel Nickelodeon (a subsidiary of Viacom) had purchased all of Mirage's rights to the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles property. Mirage retains the rights to publish 18 issues a year, though the future involvement of Mirage with the Turtles and the future of Mirage Studios itself is unknown.[6] Nickelodeon has developed a new CGI-animated TMNT television series and will partner with fellow Viacom company Paramount Pictures to bring a new TMNT movie to theaters. The TV show premiered on Nickelodeon on September 29, 2012.[7] However, in June 2012, Paramount shut down their planned production due to script issues, pushing their release date back to August 2014.[8]
Main characters[edit]
Main article: List of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles characters
Leonardo (Leo) – The tactical, courageous leader and devoted student of his sensei, Leonardo wears a blue mask and wields two long, razor-sharp swords. As the most authoritative of the four, he often bears the burden of responsibility for his brothers, which commonly leads to conflict with Raphael. Leonardo was named after the Italian polymath, painter, engineer, inventor, writer, anatomist, and sculptor, Leonardo da Vinci.
Michelangelo (Mike or Mikey) – The most stereotypical of the team: An easy-going and free-spirited prankster, Michelangelo wears an orange mask and wields a pair of nunchucks. He is the least mature of the four Turtles and provides the comic relief. Michelangelo has an adventurous side coupled with a love of pizza. He is somewhat of a "surfer" boy and is often depicted with a Southern Californian accent. He is named after the Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer, Michelangelo. His name was originally misspelled "Michaelangelo" by Peter Laird and Kevin Eastman.[9]
Raphael (Raph) – The team's bad boy, Raphael wears a dark red mask and wields a pair of sai. He is physically strong, has an aggressive nature, and seldom hesitates to throw the first punch. He is often depicted with a New York accent. His personality can be fierce and sarcastic, and oftentimes delivers deadpan humor. He is intensely loyal to his brothers and sensei. He is named after the Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance, Raphael.[9]
Donatello (Don or Donnie) – The scientist, inventor, engineer, and technological genius, Donatello wears a purple mask and wields a bo staff. Donatello is perhaps the least violent turtle, preferring to use his knowledge to solve conflicts, but never hesitates to defend his brothers. He is named after the early Renaissance Italian artist and sculptor from Florence, Donatello.
Splinter – The Turtles' sensei and adoptive father, Splinter is a Japanese mutant rat who learned the ways of ninjutsu from his owner and master, Hamato Yoshi. In the 1987 TV series, Archie Comics series and the 2012 TV series, Splinter was Hamato Yoshi mutated into a humanoid rat instead of being just Yoshi's pet. In the IDW comics, he is Hamato Yoshi reincarnated as a mutated rat.
April O'Neil – A former lab assistant to the mad scientist Baxter Stockman, April is the plucky human companion of the Turtles. April first met the Turtles when they saved her from Baxter's Mouser robots. She embarks on many of the Turtles' adventures and aids them by doing the work in public that the Turtles cannot. In the 1987 TV series, Archie Comics series, the subsequent three films &the 2014 film reboot, April was a television news reporter. In the 2007 CGI film (Following the continuity from the original 3 films), she and Casey Jones work for a shipping firm. In the 2012 series, April is a teenager who is rescued by the TMNT and later is given some 'crash courses' in being a ninja by Splinter.
Casey Jones – A vigilante who wears a hockey mask to protect his identity, Casey Jones has become one of the Turtles' closest allies, as well as a love interest to April. Casey first encountered the Turtles after having a fight with Raphael. He fights crime with an assortment of sporting goods he carries in a golf bag, such as baseball bats, golf clubs, and hockey sticks.
Shredder – A villainous ninjutsu master called Oroku Saki who is the leader of the Foot Clan. In every incarnation of the TMNT franchise, he has been the archenemy of Splinter and the Turtles. Shredder prefers to use his armor instead of weapons in some versions.
Karai – A female high-rank member of the Foot Clan who has appeared in several different TMNT comics, cartoons and films, as well as in multiple video games. In some incarnations of the character, she is closely related to the Shredder as his adopted daughter or biological granddaughter. In most works, she shares an ambiguous rivalry with Leonardo, which occasionally even borders on romantic interest.
Comics[edit]
Mirage[edit]
Main article: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (Mirage Studios)
Eastman and Laird's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles premiered in May, 1984, at a comic book convention held at a local Sheraton Hotel in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. It was published by Mirage Studios in an over-sized magazine-style format using black and white artwork on cheap newsprint, limited to a print run of only 3,250 copies.[10] Through a clever media kit that included a press release in Comic Buyer's Guide #542 and a full page ad placed in Comic Buyer's Guide #547, the public's interest was piqued and thus began the Turtle phenomenon. The small print runs made these early comics and trade magazines instant collector items, and within months they were trading for over fifty times their cover price. The name "Mirage Studios" was chosen because of Eastman and Laird's lack of a professional art studio at the start of their career, before their creation made them both multi-millionaires.
Mirage also published a bi-monthly companion book entitled Tales of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, featuring art by Ryan Brown and Jim Lawson, which was designed to fill in the gaps of continuity in the TMNT universe. This put the original series and Tales in the same mainstream continuity, and the two are thus canon to each other. The title's first volume was from 1987–1989, released in alternating months with the regular Eastman and Laird book. All seven issues of Volume One have been collected in trade paperback form twice, and twenty-five issues of Volume Two have been collected in trades of five issues each.
As the TMNT phenomenon proliferated to other media, Eastman and Laird would find themselves administrating an international merchandising juggernaut. However, this prevented the two creators from participating in the day-to-day work of writing and illustrating a monthly comic book. For this reason, many guest artists were invited to showcase their unique talents in the TMNT universe. The breadth of diversity found in the various short stories gave the series a disjointed, anthology-like feel. Fans stuck with the series, and what was originally intended as a one-shot became a continuing series that lasted for 129 issues spanning four separate volumes (having 62, 13, 23 and 31 issues in the four distinct volumes).
In June 1996, Image Comics took over publishing the title in what is considered "Volume 3" of the series. It was a slightly more action-oriented TMNT series and although notable for inflicting major physical changes on the main characters, Peter Laird, co-creator of the TMNT, has said this volume is no longer in canon as he began publishing Volume 4 at Mirage Publishing. As an explanation, he offered in the pages of Volume 4's letter column: "It just didn't feel right."[volume & issue needed]
After taking back the series from Image Comics, Mirage Studios resumed publication of a fourth volume in December 2001, under the simple title TMNT. After the publication of issue #28, writer Peter Laird placed the series on an eight-month hiatus to devote himself to production of the 2007 TMNT movie. However, after that eight months had passed Mirage's official website went on to list the series as in "indefinite hiatus". In January 2008, Mirage had finally confirmed that the series would return in May 2008. Issues 29 and 30 had a limited printing of 1,000 copies each, and were available through the official TMNT website. Although the purchase agreement with Nickelodeon allows Laird to produce up to 18 comics a year set in the original Mirage continuity, no new material has been released since the sale.
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Adventures[edit]
Main article: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Adventures
Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Adventures was a comic book series published from August 1988 to October 1995 by Archie Comics. The initial storylines were close adaptations of the 1987 TV series, but with the fifth issue Eastman and Laird decided to hand the series over to Mirage Studios employees Ryan Brown and Stephen Murphy who immediately abandoned the animated series adaptations and took the title in a decidedly different direction with all-new original adventures, including the uniting of several of the series' recurring characters as a separate team, the Mighty Mutanimals.
Dreamwave[edit]
A monthly comic inspired by the 2003 TV series was published by Dreamwave Productions from June to December 2003. It was written by Peter David and illustrated by LeSean Thomas. In the first four issues, which were the only ones directly adapted from the TV series, the story was told from the perspectives of April, Baxter, Casey, and a pair of New York City police officers.
IDW[edit]
Main article: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (IDW Publishing)
In April 2011, IDW Publishing announced that they had acquired the license to publish new collections of Mirage storylines and a new ongoing series.[11] The first issue of the new series was released on August 24, 2011. Turtles co-creator Kevin Eastman and Tom Waltz write, with Eastman and Dan Duncan handling art chores.
Manga[edit]
The Turtles have appeared in several manga series.
Mutant Turtles (ミュータント・タートルズ Myūtanto Tātoruzu?) is a 15-issue series by Tsutomu Oyamada, Zuki mora, and Yoshimi Hamada that simply adapted episodes of the original American animated series.
Super Turtles (スーパータートルズ Sūpā Tātoruzu) is a three-issue miniseries by Hidemasa Idemitsu, Tetsurō Kawade, and Toshio Kudō that featured the "TMNT Supermutants" Turtle toys that were on sale at the time. The first volume of the anime miniseries followed this storyline.
Mutant Turtles Gaiden (ミュータント・タートルズ外伝 Myūtanto Tātoruzu Gaiden?) by Hiroshi Kanno is a re-interpretation of the Turtles story with no connection to the previous manga.
Mutant Turtles III is Yasuhiko Hachino's adaptation of the third feature film.
Comic strip[edit]
Main article: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (comic strip)
A daily comic strip written and illustrated by Dan Berger began in 1990. It featured an adventure story Monday through Friday and activity puzzles on weekends (with fan art appearing later). The comic strip was published in syndication until its cancellation in December, 1996. At its highest point in popularity, it was published in over 250 newspapers.
Television series[edit]
First animated series (1987–1996)[edit]
Main article: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1987 TV series)
When little known Playmates Toys Inc. was approached about producing a TMNT action figure line, they were cautious of the risk and requested that a television deal be acquired first.[12][13] On December 28, 1987, the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles' first cartoon series began, starting as a 5-part miniseries and becoming a regular Saturday morning syndicated series on October 1, 1988 with 13 more episodes. The series was produced by Murakami-Wolf-Swenson Film Productions Inc (later Fred Wolf Films). Mirage Studios does not own the rights to this cartoon series. The show places a much stronger emphasis on humor than the comics do. Here, the Ninja Turtles are portrayed as four wise-cracking, pizza-obsessed superheroes who fight the forces of evil from their sewer hideout, and they make their first appearance in masks color-coded to each turtle, where previously they had all worn red.[14]
The cast included new and different characters like Bebop and Rocksteady and the Neutrinos. Original characters like Splinter, Shredder, and the Foot Soldiers stayed true to the comics in appearance and alignment only. Instead of being Hamato Yoshi's mutated pet rat, Splinter was a mutated Hamato himself. The Foot Soldiers changed from human ninjas to an endless supply of robotic grunts, allowing large numbers of them to be destroyed without anyone dying (this was a very important decision in terms of the show's child audience; excessive violence would have alienated parents of children, the show's target demographic). Krang, one of the series' most memorable villains, was inspired by the design of the Utrom, a benign alien race from the Mirage comics. The animated Krang, however, was instead an evil warlord from Dimension X. Baxter Stockman, whose race was changed from black to white either due to apprehension toward depicting a villainous African Americancharacter in a children's cartoon or that for Shredder to boss around a black Stockman would be perceived as racist. Either way, Stockman was rewritten as a shy and meek lackey to Shredder, later mutating into an anthropomorphic housefly. During the final two seasons of the show, in order to combat the rising popularity of Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, the lead villain switched to Lord Dregg, an evil alien overlord bent on world conquest by trying to distract the public into believing that the Turtles were the enemy instead of himself.
Starting on September 25, 1989, the series was expanded to weekdays and it had 47 more episodes for the new season. There were 28 new syndicated episodes for Season 4 and only 13 of those episodes aired in 1990. The "European Vacation" episodes were not seen in the United States until USA Network started showing reruns in late 1993 and the "Awesome Easter" episodes were not seen until 1991. These episodes were delayed because of animation or scheduling problems.[15] The turtles are also well known for their use of idiomatic expressions characteristic of the surfer lingo of the time, especially by Michelangelo. Words and phrases included "bummer", "dude", "bogus", "radical", "far-out", "tubuloso", "bodacious", and possibly the most recognized, "cowabunga".[16] On April 21, 1990, a drug prevention television special was broadcast on ABC, NBC, and CBS named Cartoon All-Stars to the Rescue that featured some of the most popular cartoons at the time; representing TMNT was Michelangelo, voiced by Townsend Coleman.
Starting on September 8, 1990 (with a different opening sequence), the show began its run on CBS. The CBS weekend edition ran for a full hour up until 1994, initially airing a couple of Saturday exclusive episodes back to back. There would also be a brief "Turtle Tips" segment in between the two episodes which served as PSA about the environment or other issues. After 1994, the show was reduced to just a half hour and only 8 episodes per season were produced, grouped into a "CBS Action Zone" block that also featured WildC.A.T.s. and Skeleton Warriors, both of which were canceled after one season; though TMNT retained its "Action Zone" pre-intro. The two shows in the block were also produced by Fred Wolf Films. The series ran until November 2, 1996, when it aired its final episode. Its enormous popularity gave rise to its numerous imitators, including the Battletoads, Cheetahmen, Wild West C.O.W.-Boys of Moo Mesa, Road Rovers, Street Sharks, Extreme Dinosaurs, and Biker Mice from Mars. Currently, all 193 episodes are available on DVD and VHS.
Anime series[edit]
Main article: Mutant Turtles: Choujin Densetsu-hen
In addition to the American series, a Japan-exclusive two-episode anime OVA series was made in 1996, titled Mutant Turtles: Choujin Densetsu-hen. The OVA is similar in tone to the 1987 TV series and uses the same voices from TV Tokyo's Japanese dub of the 1987 TV series. The first episode was made to advertise the TMNT Supermutants toys. It featured the Turtles as superheroes, who gained costumes and superpowers with the use of Mutastones, while Shredder and Bebop and Rocksteady gained supervillain powers with the use of a Dark Mutastone. As with the Super Sentai andPower Rangers franchises, the four Turtles could combine to form the giant Turtle Saint. The second episode was created to advertise the Metal Mutants toys in which the characters gain Saint Seiya-esque mystical metal armor that can transform into beasts.
Live-action series (1997–1998)[edit]
In 1997–1998, the Turtles starred in a live-action television series called Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation that directly follows the events of the first three movies. A fifth turtle was introduced, a female named "Venus de Milo" who was skilled in the mystical arts of the shinobi.[14] The series was a loose continuation of the movie franchise, as Shredder had been defeated and the Ninja Turtles encountered new villains. Other connections to the feature films include the fact that Splinter's ear was cut, the Foot Soldiers were humans, and the Turtles lived in the abandoned subway station seen in the second and third movies. The Next Mutation Turtles made a guest appearance on Power Rangers in Space.[17] It was canceled after one season of 26 episodes.
Second animated series (2003–2009)[edit]
In 2003, a new Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles series produced by 4Kids Entertainment began airing on the "FoxBox" (later renamed "4Kids TV") programming block. It later moved to "The CW4Kids" block. The series was co-produced by Mirage Studios,[18] and Mirage owned one-third of the rights to the series. Mirage's significant stake in creative control resulted in a cartoon that hews more closely to the original comics, creating a darker and edgier feel than the 1987 cartoon, but still remaining lighthearted enough to be considered appropriate for children.
This series lasted until 2009, ending with a feature-length television movie titled Turtles Forever, which was produced in conjunction with the 25th anniversary of the TMNT franchise and featured the Turtles of the 2003 series teaming up with their counterparts from the 1987 series. 4Kidstv.com featured all the episodes of the series, up until September 2010.
Third animated series (2012–present)[edit]
Nickelodeon acquired the global rights to Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles from the Mirage Group and 4Kids Entertainment, Inc. and announced a new CGI-animated TMNT television series.[19][20][21] The series premiered in 2012 and has proven to be a hit, as it was already renewed for a third season before season one ended. Season three premiered in October 2014 and the series has been renewed for a fourth season.
Feature films[edit]
Main article: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (film series)
The Turtles have appeared in five feature films. The first three are live-action features produced in the early 1990s: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1990), Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Secret of the Ooze (1991) and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III (1993). The Turtles were played by various actors in costumes featuring animatronic heads, initially produced by the Jim Henson's Creature Shop. The fourth film is a CGI-animated film titled simply TMNT and released in 2007. A reboot produced by Platinum Dunes, Nickelodeon Movies and Paramount Pictures, directed by Jonathan Liebesmanand produced by Michael Bay, was released on 8 August 2014.[22]
Merchandise[edit]
Among the first licensed products to feature the Ninja Turtles was a pen and paper RPG titled Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles & Other Strangeness, published by Palladium Books in 1985 and featuring original comics and illustrations by Eastman and Laird themselves. The game features a large list of animals, including elephants and sparrows, that are available as mutant player characters. There were several more titles in this genre, including Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Adventures, Truckin' Turtles, Turtles Go Hollywood, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Guide to the Universe, andTransdimensional Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.
In 1986, Dark Horse Miniatures in Boise, Idaho produced an attendant set of lead figurines; unlike later incarnations the bandannas on the store's display set were painted all black before the multicolored versions were released to help younger readers distinguish between the four characters other than their weaponry. Palladium allowed the license to lapse in 2000, in part due to declining sales stemming from the "kiddification" of the animated and live-action incarnations to that point. However, Palladium's publisher, Kevin Siembieda, has indicated a potential willingness to revisit the license given the franchise's recent moves closer to its roots.[23]
Toys[edit]
Main article: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles action figures
During the run of the 1987 TV series, Playmates Toys produced hundreds of TMNT action figures, along with vehicles, playsets, and accessories, becoming one of the top collectibles for children.[24]Staff artists at Northampton, Massachusetts-based Mirage Studios provided conceptual designs for many of the figures, vehicles, and playsets and creator credit can be found in the legal text printed on the back of the toy packaging. In addition, Playmates produced a series of TMNT/Star Trek crossover figures, due to Playmates holding the Star Trek action figure license at the time. Playmates employed many design groups to develop looks and styles for the toy line, including Bloom Design, White Design, Pangea, Robinson-Clarke, and McHale Design. The Marketing VP of Playmates, Karl Aaronian, was largely responsible for assembling the talented team of designers and writers, which in turn, helped germinate continued interest in the toy line.

Never before in toy history did an action figure line have such an impact for over two decades, generating billions of dollars in licensing revenue. The series was highly popular in the UK where, in the run-up to Christmas, the Army & Navy Store in London's Lewisham devoted its entire basement to everything Turtle, including games, videos, costumes and other items. Playmates continue to produce TMNT action figures based on the 2003 animated series. The 2007 film TMNT also gave Playmates a new source from which to make figures, while NECA produced a series of high-quality action figures based on character designs from the original Mirage comics. In 2012, a new toy line and a new classic toy line from Playmates were announced to be released.[25]
Video games[edit]
Main article: List of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles video games
The first Famicom/NES TMNT game was Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, released by Konami/Ultra in 1989 and later ported on the many home computers and eventually for the Wii on the Virtual Console. Also released by Konami in 1989 was the first TMNT arcade game, also titled simply Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, later ported to the NES as Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Arcade Game, leading to an NES-only sequel, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III: The Manhattan Project, which used the look of the arcade game, as opposed the first NES game. The next Turtles console game, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time, was released in 1991 as an arcade game, and was later ported to the Super Nintendo in 1992. Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: The Hyperstone Heist was also created for the Sega Genesis in the same year, and used many of the art assets from TMNT IV. There was also a trilogy of TMNT video games for the original Game Boy system made by Konami, consisting of: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Fall of the Foot Clan, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: Back from the Sewers, and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III: Radical Rescue. As the video game series progressed, and the Ninja Turtles' popularity began to decline in the mid-1990s, the video games changed direction. Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Tournament Fighters was released as a set of one-on-one fighting game similar to the Street Fighter series.; each console's version if the game was a distinct game.
Konami also acquired the license to adapt the 2003 TV series into a video game franchise, resulting in a new series of games with 3D gameplay inspired by the old TMNT beat 'em up games (Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (2003 video game), Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 2: Battle Nexus, and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 3: Mutant Nightmare).
In 2006, Ubisoft acquired the rights of TMNT games, beginning with a game based on the 2007 animated feature film.[26] A beat 'em up game Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Arcade Attack was released for the DS in 2009, to coincide with the series' 25th anniversary.[27] In 2013, Activision released the downloadable game Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows, based on the 2012 TV series and developed by Red Fly Studio for the Xbox Live Arcade, PlayStation Network and Steam.[28]
In other media[edit]
Food tie-ins[edit]
Main article: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles food tie-ins
During the height of their popularity (1987–1996) the Turtles had a number of food tie-ins.[29] Among the most notable of these products was Ninja Turtles Cereal, produced by Ralston-Purina as a kind of "Chex with TMNT-themed marshmallows" which also came with a small pouch of Pizza Crunchabungas, pizza flavored corn snacks in the shape of pizzas (the commercial starred the Ninja Turtles asWill Vinton-created claymations); Hostess Ninja Turtles Pudding Pies, featuring a green sugar crust and vanilla pudding inside; and Royal OOZE Gelatin Desserts, distributed by Nabisco under "Royal Gelatin" in three different flavors: orange, strawberry, and lime. Shreddies used to give out TMNT toys in their boxes when the cereal advertising was still geared toward children. One example of a TMNT prize was rings featuring a character on the cartoon (1992). There was also green Ninja Turtle ice cream with different toppings according to which turtle flavor one ordered. Chef Boyardee also released a canned pasta with the pasta in the shapes of the four turtles themselves.[30]
Concert tour[edit]
To capitalize on the Turtles' popularity, a concert tour was held in 1990, premiering at Radio City Music Hall on August 17.[31][32] The "Coming Out of Their Shells" tour featured live-action turtles playing music as a band (Donatello, keyboards; Leonardo, bass guitar; Raphael, drums and sax; Michelangelo, guitar) on stage around a familiar plotline: April O'Neil is kidnapped by the Shredder, and the turtles have to rescue her.[33] The story had a very Bill-n'-Ted-esque feel, with its theme of the power of rock n' roll literally defeating the enemy, in the form of the Shredder (who only rapped about how he hates music) trying to eliminate all music. A pay-per-view special highlighting the concert was shown, and a studio album was also released. Stylistically, the music's genre was closest to hair metal/power rock.[34] The track listing is as follows:
Concert tour track list [show]
Since the tour was sponsored by Pizza Hut in real life, there are many references to their pizza. Empty Pizza Hut boxes are seen onscreen in the "Behind the Shells" VHS. As part of a cross-marketing strategy, Pizza Hut restaurants gave away posters, audio cassettes of "Coming Out of Their Shells", and "Official Tour Guides" as premiums. The original show of the tour was released on video with a making of video also released. The song "Pizza Power" was later used by Konami for the second arcade game Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time.
At the Disney-MGM Studios theme park[edit]
On June 30, 1990, the TMNT appeared in the "New York Street" section of Disney-MGM Studios theme park in Orlando. Emerging from their Turtle Party Wagon, they would "ninja dance" across the stage while April performed the theme song to the show. After the main show was done they would pose for pictures and sign autographs. The Turtles also made appearances in Disney's "Very Merry Christmas Parade" to sing their own rendition of "Santa Claus is Coming to Town". They also appeared during the Easter parade dancing to their single "Pizza Power!" The Turtles' live shows and appearances ceased production in 1996.
Parodies[edit]
Although the TMNT had originated as something of a parody, the comic's explosive success led to a wave of small-press, black and white comic parodies of TMNT itself, including Adolescent Radioactive Black Belt Hamsters, Pre-Teen Dirty-Gene Kung Fu Kangaroos, and a host of others. Dark Horse Comics' Boris the Bear was launched in response to these TMNT clones; its first issue was titled "Boris the Bear Slaughters the Teenage Radioactive Black Belt Mutant Ninja Critters". Once the Turtles broke into the mainstream, parodies also proliferated in other media, such as in satire magazines Cracked and Mad magazine and numerous TV series of the period.
Controversies[edit]
Departure from origins[edit]
In keeping with the "grim 'n gritty" feel to parody Frank Miller's Ronin/Elektra material, the Turtles engaged in a greater amount of overt violence in the pages of the early Mirage comic book series by Eastman and Laird. As the TMNT were introduced into the mainstream, they were radically redesigned. In issue #19 of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, the creators published an editorial addressing any possible concerns of readers as a result of this. It stated, in part: "We've allowed the wacky side to happen, and enjoy it very much. All the while, though, we've kept the originals very much ours – forty pages of what we enjoy and want to see in our books, whether it comes from our own hands or from those of the talented people we work with."[35] In the film Turtles Forever, the original Mirage Turtles refer to their descendants as "sell-outs", in reference to their colorful accessories (the originals are conveyed in black and white).
Teenage Mutant "Hero" Turtles [edit]
Upon TMNT's first arrival in the United Kingdom and Ireland the name was changed to "Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles" (or TMHT, for short), since local censorship policies deemed the word ninja to have excessively violent connotations for a children's program (in Ireland, however, the first season aired as "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles" before changing to "Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles").[36] Consequently, everything related to the Turtles (comic books, video games, toys, etc.) had to be renamed before being released in these nations, as well as in the German-speaking countries.
The lyrics were also changed, such as changing "Splinter taught them to be ninja teens" to "Splinter taught them to be fighting teens". The policies also had other effects, such as editing out use of Michelangelo's nunchaku (which were at the time banned from appearing in 18-rated movies) and generally toning down the usage of all the turtles' weapons.[37] To head this problem off, the showrunners elected to remove Michelangelo's nunchaku entirely during season three, replacing them with a grappling hook called the "Turtle Line" that served as Mikey's signature weapon for the rest of the show's run.[4]
In Italy, Spain and Portugal, they kept Michelangelo's nunchaku but the "TMHT" logo could be seen in the intro, as it was not edited to reflect the title in each of those translations. In Spain the cartoon was originally aired in regional TV channels and thus had different dubs in addition to Castillian: Galician andCatalan;[citation needed] in the Galician version, the title As Tartarugas Mutantes ("The Mutant Turtles") was used. The Italian and European Portuguese dubs also had few edits.
However, when the live-action movie came out in 1990, the Ninja of the title was kept even in the UK. In time, nunchaku scenes were retained in previously-censored movies such as those of Bruce Lee. The same went for the PAL releases of the early video games, which had Michelangelo's weapon of choice fully visible and usable. By the time of the 2003 TV series, these censorship policies had been abolished, and no changes have occurred in the content of the show. The name "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles" remained unchanged for the 2003 TV series. As a result, in the UK, the 1987 TV series is still called Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles and the 2003 TV series is called Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. In 2009, Lionsgate Home Entertainment released the 25th Anniversary Collectors Edition on Region 2 DVD in the UK. This 3-Disc set contains all the episodes of Seasons 1 and 2 and 4 episodes from the final season, as well as a 1-Disc DVD with the first few episodes of Season 1. This release features the original, unedited episodes under the "Ninja Turtles" title, and also marks the first time the show has been released uncensored in the UK.[citation needed]
Ownership rights[edit]
Due to various movie and television deals, the various TMNT films and television series have split between various companies, with Mirage Studios having retained copyright and trademark until October 19, 2009, at which point the rights for the entire TMNT franchise were sold by co-creator Peter Laird to Nickelodeon.[38]
Television[edit]
The original animated series (1987–1996) was produced by Fred Wolf Films Dublin (as Murakami Wolf Swenson (MWS) and Murakami Wolf Dublin (MWD) during earlier seasons), and syndicated byGroup W. The series itself is owned by Wolf Films, with home entertainment rights residing with Lions Gate Entertainment, and until recently, syndication rights belonged to Nickelodeon's former corporate sibling CBS Television Distribution.[citation needed] The initial five-part miniseries (retroactively considered the first season) was copyrighted by Playmates Toys, although their rights to those episodes were bought out by Fred Wolf Films.
Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation was produced by Saban Entertainment, and as of September 2011, is owned and distributed by Saban Brands.[39][40][41]
The second animated series (2003–2009) was a co-production between Mirage Studios and 4Kids Entertainment. Nickelodeon's October 19, 2009 buyout of the TMNT franchise included an approximate $9.75 million payment to 4Kids to terminate its right to serve as the merchandise licensing agent prior to the scheduled expiration of the representation agreement in 2012.[7] Due to the buyout, all future TMNT film and television series rights are owned by Nickelodeon.[38]
Films[edit]
The first three TMNT live-action films were produced by Golden Harvest, with New Line Cinema (now a sister company of Warner Bros. Entertainment) distributing the films in the United States, with20th Century Fox distributed the second and third films in most other territories. The first two films were copyrighted by the UK-based Northshore Investments, who according to the legal indicia for the comic book adaptations of those films, owned the supporting characters Keno, Tatsu, Chief Sterns and Professor Jordan Perry.[42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49] The third film was copyrighted by Clearwater Holdings. The fourth film was produced by Imagi Animation Studios, and released by Warner Bros. Entertainment in association with the Weinstein Company.
Michael Bay produced a feature film directed by Jonathan Liebesman titled Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, and was released on August 8, 2014.
Comic books[edit]
Initially, Mirage allowed employees and freelancers to retain the rights to characters they created for the TMNT Universe but had never licensed for media and merchandise outside comic books. Eventually, due to the difficulty of keeping track of everyone's rights, Mirage made TMNT character creators sign retroactive work-for-hire contracts. One creator who did not sign over the rights to his TMNT work was Swamp Thing veteran Rick Veitch.[50]

Las Tortugas Ninja, o formalmente Las Tortugas Ninja Mutantes Adolescentes (y en algunos países de Latinoamérica Las Ninja Tortugas Adolescentes Mutantes, Tortugas Ninja o simplemente Tortuninjas), también abreviado como TMNT (abreviatura de Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, título original), son un grupo ficticio de cuatro hermanos, tortugas antropomorfos que, como uno puede deducir del nombre, son tambiénadolescentes, mutantes y ninjas. Cada una de las tortugas está nombrada en honor de artistas famosos del Renacimiento italiano: Leonardo (deLeonardo da Vinci) - azul, Raphael (Rafael Sanzio) - rojo, Michelangelo (Miguel Ángel Buonarroti) - naranja, Donatello (Donatello) - violeta, incluso sumaestro, Splinter (Astilla en España), lleva el apodo de un importante pintor del Quattrocento, (Giovanni di Ser Giovanni, llamado «Scheggia», es decir"Splinter" ("Astilla" en España). Las TNMA viven a menudo en las alcantarillas de Nueva York, pero también han vivido en otros lugares, como la granja de la abuela de April O'Neil en Northampton, Massachusetts, viejas estaciones del metro subterráneo y el apartamento de April O'Neil. Las Tortugas Ninja han inspirado el nombre de una tortuga prehistórica que tiene cuernos y una cola llena de picos. Los científicos ubicaron este animal en un nuevo género, Ninjemys, que significa la "tortuga ninja".
El 21 de octubre de 2009, se anunció que Nickelodeon había comprado los derechos de la franquicia de las Tortugas Ninja, propiedad de Mirage Studios. Los nuevos planes incluyen la creación de una nueva serie animada en formato CGI de Las Tortugas Ninja, y una nueva película en imagen real de Las Tortugas Ninja la cual fue producida por Nickelodeon en asociación con Paramount Pictures se estrenó el 7 de Agosto de 2014..
Cómics[editar]
Las tortugas se originaron en un pequeño cómic en blanco y negro de Kevin Eastman y Peter Laird titulado "Eastman and Laird's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles." Fue lanzado en 1984 y publicado porMirage Studios . Se convirtió una sensación de la noche a la mañana entre los cómics independientes. El origen de la historieta es una parodia y un homenaje al trabajo de Frank Miller. La cubierta de la primera edición es muy similar a Rōnin de Frank Miller, y el origen la historia de las tortugas implica el mismo origen que el de Daredevil. Los enemigos de las tortugas, el Clan del Pie, pudieron también haber sido inspirados por otra creación de Miller, The Hand (La Mano), un grupo de asesinos ninja.
La primera edición fue anunciada antes de su publicación en una guía de cómics, la cual consiguió mucha atención de los fanáticos de historietas cómicas, tanto, que la primera tirada de 3000 copias fue vendida inmediatamente, y rápidamente se incrementó su valor comercial. Se suponía que el cómic iba a ser solo una parodia de una sola edición, pero el éxito de las ventas condujo a una serie de continuaciones.
El formato del cómic fue más grande que el de las historietas regulares, y permaneció en este tamaño para las primeras ediciones. El éxito también condujo a un incremento de popularidad de los cómics en blanco y negro a mediados de los años 80, cuando otras pequeñas editoriales intentaron sacar también parodias de animales antropomorfos esperando obtener beneficios rápidos. La mayoría de ellos lograron venderlos a las tiendas de cómics en grandes cantidades, pero no lograron venderse a los lectores, lo que llevó a un colapso de ventas de historietas durante 1986-1987.
A través de los años los cómics de las tortugas ninja han inspirado cuatro series separadas y varias historias alternativas, culminando en el TMNT: Volumen 4 en blanco y negro, que comenzó su publicación en 2001 y continúa hasta la fecha de 2005; sin embargo, sufre de ventas escasas y de muy poca publicidad.
Las historietas de Archie poseyeron los derechos de publicación de los cómics basados en la serie de animación de 1987. Estas aventuras cómicas, TMNT Adventures, dejaron de seguir la historia del programa de televisión después de la edición número 5 y desarrollaron sus propios argumentos de historia. Mientras que la serie de televisión de 1987 tenía mucho más humor, la encarnación de los cómics de Archie eran temas más oscuros, más violentos y exploraban temas tales como la muerte, conflicto religioso y problemas medioambientales. La serie de cómics de Archie fue publicada entre 1988 y 1995.
Image Comics también lanzó una serie de acción de las tortugas ninja, conocida como Volumen 3, después de la desaparición del Volumen 2 y antes del lanzamiento del Volumen 4. El Volumen 3 fue tenido en gran aversión por los fanáticos, en gran parte por la mutilación de los personajes principales (Leonardo perdió un brazo y Rafael perdió un ojo). Se ha sacado de la continuidad y no es canon. El Volumen 2, publicado otra vez por Mirage, mostró a Baxter Stockman en un cuerpo robótico como el villano principal y salió en 13 ediciones completas a color.
Dan Berger dibujó y escribió una historieta diaria, ésta fue publicada hasta su cancelación en diciembre de 1996. En la cima de su popularidad, fue publicada en más de 250 periódicos alrededor del mundo.
Desde junio hasta diciembre de 2003, fue publicada una historieta mensual por Dreamwave Productions, inspirada en la serie animada de 2003, hasta que fue cancelada debido a las bajas ventas. Fue escrita por Peter David e ilustrada por LeSean Thomas y en las primeras tres ediciones, que fueron las únicas basadas en la serie de TV, se mostró la perspectiva de April O'Neil, de Baxter Stockman y de Casey Jones en lugar del punto de vista de las mismas tortugas.
Actualmente la editorial IDW Publishing tomó los derechos de los comics y actualmente publica su serie y ha creado unos spin-off centrados en algunos de sus personajes secundarios.
Series de televisión[editar]
Primera serie animada (1987–1996)[editar]
Artículo principal: Tortugas Ninja Mutantes Adolescentes (serie de televisión de 1987)
La primera serie de televisión de las Tortugas Ninja Mutantes Adolescentes inició el 10 de diciembre de 1987, en la cadena estadounidense CBS. La versión de fin de semana presentó una hora completa del "poder ninja tortuga", inicialmente mostrando un par de episodios exclusivos (en ese entonces) de los sábados. Esta serie fue transmitida en los Estados Unidos hasta el 12 de noviembre de 1996.
En la animación, las Tortugas Ninja Adolescentes Mutantes son cuatro inteligentes tortugas adolescentes comedoras de pizza que pelean contra las fuerzas del mal en los alrededores de su guarida en las cloacas. En el crepúsculo de las series, las nuevas direcciones creativas incluyeron aumentar las capacidades de los personajes estelares, ampliando la cantidad de personajes, e incluso incluyendo un poco de temas más oscuros.
Esta serie de animación fue hecha por los estudios de Murakami-Wolf-Swenson Film Productions, por lo tanto Mirage Studios no posee los derechos de esta serie de las tortugas ninja de 1987, así que los cambios hechos en esta versión de las tortugas ninja no fueron transferidos a otras versiones; sin embargo, en el reciente renacimiento de la serie de animación se han incorporado muchos tributos (a pesar de las sensaciones mezcladas de Peter Laird sobre una serie de TV que se apartó tanto de su historieta). A pesar del desdén evidente, Laird ha dicho en numerosas ocasiones que él "no odia" a la serie animada original, y la respeta por haber contribuido a aumentar la fama de la actual franquicia.
El reparto de personajes incluyó a nuevos y diferentes personajes incluyendo a April O'Neil, Casey Jones, Bebop y Rocoso (Bebop & Rocksteady), Baxter Stockman, Don Turtelli, Leatherhead y al Rey Rata (Rat King), . Los personajes originales como los soldados del clan del pie (Foot Soldiers) permanecieron fieles al cómic solamente en su aspecto y alineación. Krang, uno de los villanos más memorables de la serie, fue inspirado por el diseño de los Utrom, una raza alienígena benévola de Mirage cómics. Sin embargo, el Krang animado, era por otra parte un enemigo de la dimensión X, y un ser altamente malvado
Anime[editar]
Además de la serie americana, un anime OVA de dos episodios fue hecho en 1996 exclusivamente para Japón, titulado: las Tortugas Mutantes: Choujin Densetsu-hen ("Leyenda del Superhombre"). Mostró a las tortugas como superhéroes, quienes obtuvieron trajes y superpoderes mediante el uso de "Muta-Piedras," mientras que Shredder, Krang, Bebop y Rocoso ganaron superpoderes de villanos mediante el uso de a "Muta-Piedras Oscuras." Los personajes del show se asemejaban a los de la Serie animada original de Estados Unidos, pero con personalidades muy diferentes. El show tuvo como objetivo a una audiencia mucho más joven, y utilizó muchos divertidos elementos de Sentai y superhéroes de historieta. Aun así, contiene un fuerte contenido y lenguaje adulto en algunas escenas.
La serie "Ninja Turtles: The Next Mutation"[editar]
Artículo principal: Las Tortugas Ninja: Next Mutation
En 1997-1998, fue realizada una serie de acción con actores en trajes de tortugas que fue producida por Saban Entertainment Inc. y Toei Company para la extinta cadena Fox Kids. Se introdujo una quinta tortuga, una hembra llamada "Venus de Milo" le gustaba el football y era quien era experta en las místicas artes del shinobi, esta cuando Splinter cae enfermo Shredder y los soldados de a pie invaden la guarida de las tortugas y venus lo derrota Shredder ya había sido derrotado para siempre , las Tortugas Ninja tenían nuevos villanos. Esta serie parecía estar conectada con las películas ya que se mostraba a Splinter con una oreja rebanada, los Foot Soldier eran seres humanos, y los héroes vivían en la guarida que se mostró en la segunda y tercer película. En esta serie tenían dosvehículos: un Hummer y una motocicleta que solamente montaba Rafael. Estas versiones de las tortugas de Ninja hicieron apariciones como invitados en la series de Power Rangers: En el espacio, una serie de superhéroes de esa temporada. Esta encarnación de las tortugas no fue muy popular y fue cancelada después de una temporada de 26 episodios.
Desde su cancelación, el programa ha sido considerado apócrifo por la fanbase de TNAM, y Laird y Eastman han rechazado todo el conocimiento de Venus de Milo (en noviembre de 2000).
Segunda serie animada (2003–2009)[editar]
Artículo principal: Las Tortugas Ninja (2003)
El 8 de febrero de 2003, 4Kids Entertainment revivió la franquicia de las tortugas ninja adolescentes mutantes con una serie animada "de los sábados" en un bloque de programación del canal Fox (este bloque fue renombrado "4Kids TV"). La serie de 2003 fue producida por Mirage Studios, y por lo tanto Mirage Studios posee un tercio de los derechos de la serie.
Las Tortugas se representan más como familia que como un equipo que combate (a diferencia de la serie de 1987). En la cuarta temporada, Shredder aparentemente desapareció, sin embargo, al ser el más grande de los archienemigos de las tortugas, es probable él, o alguna nueva encarnación aparezca eventualmente otra vez lo cual ocurrió en la última temporada.
Todas las películas de acción real están disponibles en DVD y VHS así como la serie animada de 2003. La serie de 1987 solo está disponible en su versión de VHS (ya no se hacen más copias) que son favoritas como artículos de colección. También se lanzó un DVD de la serie de 1987 que está disponible desde abril de 2004, el cual contiene los episodios originales mostrados en EE.UU. en diciembre de 1987 y cuatro episodios adicionales de su décima y última temporada. También la segunda temporada está disponible en DVD. Los primeros doce episodios de la serie original de la tercer temporada también están disponibles en DVD. La serie "The Next Mutation" también está disponible en DVD y VHS.
Una nueva serie de las Tortugas Ninja Mutantes Adolescentes producida por 4Kids Entertainment comenzó a transmitirse en el "FoxBox bloque de programación". Más tarde se trasladó a el bloque CW4Kids. La serie fue co-producida por Mirage Studios, y Mirage poseía un tercio de los derechos de dicha serie. Mirage tuvo una participación significativa en el control creativo de dicha serie y resultó en una caricatura que se asemeje más a los cómics originales, creando un ambiente más oscuro y más apropiado que la caricatura de 1987, pero aun queda lo suficientemente ligera para ser considerada apropiada para los niños. Esta serie duró hasta 2009, terminando con una película para televisión titulada Tortugas para Siempre, que fue producido en conjunto con el 25 º aniversario de la franquicia TMNT y contó con las tortugas de la serie de 2003 haciendo equipo con sus homólogos de la serie de 1987. 4Kidstv.com transmitió todos los episodios de la serie hasta septiembre de 2009; 4Kids ya no es propietaria de la licencia de esta serie sino Nickelodeon, lo que significa que ya no puede ser visto en 4Kidstv.com.
Tercera serie animada (2012-presente)[editar]
Artículo principal: Las Tortugas Ninja (2012)
Una serie original de Nickelodeon, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles fue estrenada el 29 de septiembre de 2012 en Estados Unidos, con el episodio "Rise of the Turtles". La serie gira entorno a 4 tortugas que fueron creadas por accidente en un laboratorio (Leonardo, Raphael, Miguel Angelo y Donatello), naciendo así, "Las Tortugas Ninja" que viven en la ciudad de Nueva York donde juntos luchan por la prevalencia de su clan ante los ninja del pie, arruinar los planes de "the Kraang" y por distribuir justicia en la ciudad.
Su primer adelanto fue el 28 de septiembre de 2012 a las 8:00 pm con el estreno de la primera parte de "Rise of the Turtles" ("El Origen de las Tortugas), con un total de 2.3 millones de espectadores (2.295). El episodio piloto alcanzó un total de 3.9 millones de espectadores con duración de una hora y fue la caricatura número uno en audiencia ese día. En Latinoamérica se estrenó el 12 de noviembre de 2012 y en España el 10 de noviembre de 2012. El 2 de octubre de 2012, se confirmó que la serie se renovó para una segunda temporada que constará de 26 episodios. La primera temporada consta de 26 episodios. Hasta el 3 de junio de 2013 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles lleva un total de 29 episodios estrenados en Estados Unidos. La serie, junto con Bob Esponja han sido las caricaturas más vistas del canal durante los últimos meses. Gracias al éxito que ha tenido la serie, Nickelodeon ha renovó para una segunda temporada estrenada el sábado 8 de febrero de 2014.
La animación ha recibido buenas críticas hasta la fecha; cabe destacar que en esta serie fueron utilizados algunos villanos como "Kraang" o "El Rey Rata" que habían desaparecido para la serie animada de 2003, estos han sido rediseñados y adaptados a esta versión con un concepto más reciente a la época.
Los roles de las tortugas en cuanto a personalidad no se diferencian radicalmente de la serie animada de 2003, sin embargo el concepto "adolescente" de las tortugas se ha convertido en un elemento de peso con la intención de aportar ese equilibrio entre "trama seria" del cómic y "comedia" de la primera adaptación animada de la franquicia.
Nickelodeon adquirió los derechos mundiales para Tortugas Ninja del Grupo y 4Kids Entertainment, Inc. Mirage y anunció una nueva serie de televisión TMNT CGI de animación que consiste en al menos 26 episodios de media hora, no son cambios, es decir, las dos tortugas que tradicionalmente llevar armas contundentes tienen nuevas armas que son versiones blancas similares; Donatello utiliza un naginata , así como un bo, y Miguel Ángel utiliza un kusarigama y nunchaku. Esta serie se estrenó en 2012
Películas[editar]
Las Tortugas Ninja (1990)[editar]
La primera película, simplemente titulada Las Tortugas Ninja (1990), sigue de cerca la trama de las novelas gráficas originales de Eastman y Laird, con un poco del humor de la serie de TV; fue uno de los filmes independientes más exitosos que se haya hecho en los Estados Unidos. Aun cuando los fans estuvieron complacidos, muchos sintieron que las personalidades de las tortugas eran muy similares entre sí (con la excepción de Rafael). La primera mitad de la película se centra en el personaje de Rafael y muestra poco a los otros. Los efectos que se utilizaron y el vestuario creado porJim Henson Creature Shop, eran muy avanzados para su época. Las nuevas técnicas de empleo de marionetas fueron innovadoras y se aplicaron más adelante en otras películas y a la serieDinosaurios.
Las Tortugas Ninja II (1991)[editar]
La segunda película, titulada Tortugas Ninja II: El secreto del Ooze (El secreto de los mocos verdes en España) (1991), expande la historia del origen de las tortugas al mismo tiempo que anunciaba el debut cinematográfico del entonces famoso rapero Vanilla Ice. También introdujo nuevos personajes: los mutantes de Shredder, Tokka y Rahzar, así como un Super-Shredder mutado. El estilo de la película es menos oscuro, probablemente debido a la gran persuasión de los padres preocupados del nivel de violencia de las Tortugas Ninja y sus efectos sobre los niños. Por ejemplo, a excepción de Donatello, no se muestra a ninguna de las tortugas utilizando sus armas contra los enemigos. La historia original pretendía incluir a Bebop y a Rocksteady (Rocoso) por la insistencia del estudio cinematográfico, pero Laird y Eastman entablaron una gran batalla para omitirlos, y por lo tanto crearon a Tokka y Rahzar como compensación por la ausencia de Bebop y Rocksteady. La conclusión original de esta película también suponía que revelaría que el benévolo científico Jordon Perry (interpretado por David Warner) que ayudo a las tortugas seria un Utrom, pero este argumento fue descartado debido a los recortes del presupuesto, más el temor de que pudiese ser confundido con Krang. El equipo dedicó esta película a Jim Henson, quien murió en 1990.
Las Tortugas Ninja III (1993)[editar]
La tercera película en la serie fue Las tortugas ninja III (1993), que ofreció el regreso del personaje Casey Jones, interpretado de nuevo por Elias Koteas. El argumento de esta película implica que las tortugas viajan hacia atrás en el tiempo al Japón antiguo y usan armaduras Samurái. Parte de la trama involucra a las arenas sagradas del tiempo, que debutaron en Eastman y Laird Tortugas Ninja Adolescentes Mutantes Volumen 1, edición 8. El vestuario no fue realizado por Henson's Creature Shop en esta ocasión porque pensaron que la historia en esta película era muy violenta y rechazó trabajar en la misma. En su lugar una compañía llamada "All Creature Effects" hizo el trabajo de vestuario. En una revocación interesante, todas las tortugas utilizaron sus armas contra sus enemigos. A pesar de ello, esta tercera película se considera la peor de la trilogía.
TMNT (2007)[editar]
La cuarta película en la serie debutó en el nuevo milenio. TMNT (2007) se estrenó el 20 de marzo en Estados Unidos, una semana después en México y en mayo en España. A diferencia de las películas anteriores, esta película es totalmente digital, animada por ordenador por la empresa Imagi. Este film continua a partir del final de la primera película de los años 90 (por tanto, omite la segunda y tercera, como si no existiesen). Las tortugas sufren una relación muy deteriorada y corren el riesgo de enfrentarse entre ellas. Debido a ello, Leonardo emigra a México para encontrarse a si mismo y convertirse en un mejor lider. Pasan dos años hasta que April va a visitarle y le propone una petición: que vuelva a los EE.UU. para poner orden en la familia, ya que las cosas no van muy bien entre las tortugas. Leonardo accede y regresa, pero tendrá que enfrentarse con no pocos problemas: Rafael está totalmente fuera de si y un misterioso magnate millonario pretende reunir unas estatuas de míticos guerreros para fines oscuros. Esta película obtuvo una buena aceptación, aunque se criticó mucho el hecho de que la historia se centrara demasiado en la relación entre Leonardo y Rafael (Donatello y Michelangelo apenas tienen relevancia). En la película también aparecen Casey Jones y Karai.
Turtles Forever (2009)[editar]
En 2009 se estrenó en televisión la película Turtles Forever, de 70 minutos de duración, que rinde homenaje al 25º aniversario de las TMNT. La historia arranca con la banda de los Dragones Púrpura haciendo de las suyas en su base, hasta que las tortugas aparecen para desbaratar sus planes. Allí descubren que los Dragones Púrpura tiene retenidas a las tortugas ninja de la serie de los años 80. Las personalidades de ambas chocan continuamente (ya que las TMNT de los años 80 eran mucho más infantiles que las de la serie de 2003), pero deciden unirse para detener a Shredder, ya que ahora no solo hay uno, sino dos. Y es que el Shredder de los años 80 también se encuentra en esta dimensión, así como Krang, Bebop y Rocksteady (Rocoso). A lo largo de la película se hacen muchísimas referencias a todo material audiovisual de las TMNT: cómics, series, películas de imagen real y digital, merchandising, etc. Fue muy bien recibida por los fans y lamentaron que este film no se hubiese estrenado en cines. A día de hoy, esta película permanece inédita en España y no se encuentra doblada en castellano.
Tortugas Ninja (2014)[editar]
En agosto de 2014 se estrenó una nueva película de las tortugas protagonizada por Megan Fox y producida por Michael Bay.
Videojuego[editar]
Las Tortugas Ninja no sólo tienen series de animación, una exitosa línea de juguetes, y películas de acción, sino también han estelarizado muchos videojuegos. El fabricante de videojuegos japonésKonami fue en gran parte responsable de estos.
Los juegos más viejos de las tortugas se basan en la vieja serie de animación de 1987, mientras que los juegos modernos de las tortugas se basan en la nueva serie animada de 2003 y también en la película de animación digital de 2007.
Años 1980–1990[editar]
El primer juego de las tortugas ninja fue un juego de plataformas en la consola Famicom/NES (retitulado 激亀忍者伝 Gekikame Ninja Lolatello Den en Japón que se puede traducir como "leyenda feroz de las tortugas de Ninja", lo que afecto la numeración de sus secuelas de Famicom), fue lanzado en 1989. Era único en ésa en todos los aspectos, el jugador podría cambiar de un personaje a otro; cada tortuga utilizaba su arma distintiva (el bo de Donatello, los nunchakus de Miguel Ángel, las katanas de Leonardo o el sai de Rafael).
El juego era también único en el sentido de que el jugador comienza en un mapa estratégico donde el jugador puede explorar las alcantarillas así como enfrentamientos contra soldados enemigos antes de entrar a los portales del juego o puntos de entrada de su elección. Existen también varios 'objetivos' que deben ser terminados antes de completar cualquiera de los 5 niveles disponibles, tales como el rescate de April en el primer nivel. Durante el curso de las misiones, el jugador también puede recolectar varias útiles armas consumibles tales como bumerangs o shurikens. De acuerdo a la tradición de la mayoría de los videojuegos de su época, hay un inevitable "jefe" al final de cada nivel. El juego, sin embargo, es solamente para un solo jugador. Los escenarios del juego implican el zambullirse en el río Hudson, asegurar un almacén y la búsqueda del Tecnódromo.
Fue lanzado también en 1989 un juego tragamonedas que fue muy popular en las salas de videojuegos durante los años 90, también titulado simplemente Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (Tortugas Ninja Adolescentes Mutantes), creado por la compañía Konami, que consistía en un juego de luchas con vista de "lado". Fue suficientemente exitoso para generar una secuela en 1991, conocida como: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time, la cual posteriormente fue llevado al Super Nintendo
El segundo juego de NES, conocido como adolescente Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Arcade Game, fue lanzado en 1990, y era una adaptación del juego tragamonedas original, con dos niveles adicionales y algunos gráficos alterados que incluyeron anuncios publicitarios de Pizza Hut. Así también, en ese entonces los juegos tragamonedas corrían en componentes más avanzados que las consolas caseras, lo que forzó a los programadores a eliminar algunas escenas intermedias. El juego fue promocionado en la revista Nintendo Power volumen #21.
El tercer juego de NES de las Tortugas Ninja fue llamado Mutant Teenage Ninja Turtles III: The Manhattan Project y fue lanzado en 1991. Fue mostrado en la portada del volumen 32 de la revista Nintendo Power. Este juego tiene la distinción de ser el primero en introducir movimientos especiales únicos para cada tortuga (ej. Rafael saltando y girando en el aire, con un sonido de taladro, conocido como la tortuga taladro).
El primer juego de Super NES y Sega Mega Drive fue: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles IV, el cual fue un porte casero del juego tragamonedas "Turtles in Time". Tuvo varias alteraciones hechas al juego. Por ejemplo, algunos enemigos podían ser derrotados con un solo golpe en la versión de SNES. También tuvo un nivel adicional (titulado "Technodrome: Let's Kick Shell!", este nivel fue basado claramente en el nivel final del juego tragamonedas anterior y versión NES) y diversos jefes (Tokka y Rhazzar eran los jefes en el nivel de piratas, pero se convirtieron en subjefes en el nuevo nivel del Tecnodromo de la versión SNES, dejando Bibop y Rocoso - quiénes asombrosamente estuvieron ausentes en el juego de tragamonedas - en su lugar.
Así también, Slash substituyó al extraño hombre de cemento, y el Rey Rata a bordo del Footski se ubicó al final del nivel de surfeo en las alcantarillas, y Shredder fue movido al nivel del Tecnodromo y reemplazado en el nivel final por su alter-ego de la segunda película, Super-Shredder). Los niveles Sewer Surfin' y Neon Night Riders fueron cambiados de ser niveles "regulares" a ser niveles "extras". Después de algunos niveles de juego regular, las tortugas son transportadas a una época prehistórica, y posteriormente a otros periodos temporales hasta que llegan al futuro, donde combaten contra el primer Krang, y luego contra Shredder por la Estatua de la Libertad. Otros cambios hechos exclusivamente en la versión de SNES incluyen un modo de VS. para dos jugadores, un modo de límite de tiempo, y la opción de cambiar la visualización de las tortugas de "animación" (la visualización por default similar a la serie animada de ese tiempo) al formato "cómic" (en el que las tortugas se representaban con diferentes tonos de piel y con las pupilas removidas de sus ojos, lo que las hacia parecerse más a las figuras de acción, así como a la versión actual de la serie animada)
Cuando la popularidad de las Tortugas Ninja comenzó a disminuir durante los mediados de los años noventa, los juegos de video cambiaron de dirección. Se realizó otro juego para SNES y Mega Drive, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Tournament Fighters. Cada versión de este juego tuvo diferencias importantes en su argumento, modo de juego, gráficas y personajes utilizados, pero el concepto básico era iguales en cada uno: era un juego de peleas similar a la serie de Street Fighter.
Varios juegos también fueron realizados para el Famicom/NES, Game Boy, Mega Drive/Genesis, Super Famicom/Super NES, y otras consolas caseras.
2003[editar]
La compañía Konami fue la escogida para transformar la serie animada de 2003 en una licencia para videojuegos como en los años 90, dando por resultado una trilogía de juegos: Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (2004), Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 2: Battle Nexus (2005) y Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 3: Mutant Nightmare (2006), que fueron lanzados para PC, PlayStation 2 de Sony,GameCube de Nintendo, y Xbox de Microsoft. La mayoría de estos juegos han sido desaprobados por los críticos al argumentar que no tienen inspiración y no reviven la herencia de los juegos de NES y de SNES.
Algunos tienen la hipótesis de que las críticas tienen más relación en el hecho de que los juegos están basados en la serie de 2003 en lugar de la serie de 1987, donde esta última fue la que la actual generación de los corresponsales de videojuegos vio durante su niñez. Por esta razón, las series de 2003 también han enfrentado duras críticas no favorables por parte de fanáticos de la serie de 1987. Algunos jugadores también han criticado los juegos diciendo el jugador debe pasar mucho tiempo tan solo presionando el botón ataque constantemente sin permitir mucha libertad de realizar otras acciones. También fueron lanzadas versiones de Game Boy Advance de esos juegos, aunque estas difieren de las otras versiones debido a las limitaciones de hardware de este sistema. Aparte de esa trilogía, fue lanzado un cuarto videojuego adicional titulado Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Mutant Melee en 2005 para las mismas consolas. Fue un arcade de lucha con opción multijugador, pero también fue vapuleado por la crítica a causa de su mala jugabilidad.
2007[editar]
Posteriormente, y a raíz de la última película de 2007, la compañía Ubisoft se hizo con los derechos de la serie y también de la película, por lo que desde aquel año hasta el año 2013, se encargó de producir los videojuegos basados en esta franquicia. El primero fue TMNT: Tortugas ninja jóvenes mutantes (2007) para PS2, Xbox y GBA, una adaptación de la película del mismo nombre, con una jugabilidad similar a la trilogía de Prince of Persia. En 2009 fue lanzado en el servicio de descargas de Xbox Live (Xbox 360) y PlayStation Network (PS3) el videojuego Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Turtles in Time Re-Shelled, un remake de la recreativa original de 1991, con gráficos 3D en alta definición y multijugador online. Para la consola portátil Nintendo DS, fue lanzado el juego Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Arcade Attack, un sencillo arcade de scroll horizontal al estilo clásico para varios jugadores que recibió buenas críticas. Elsiguiente videojuego fue Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Smash Up para Wii y PlayStation 2, programado por Game Arts para Ubisoft, un arcade de lucha multijugador de sencilla pero divertida jugabilidad, muy similar a Super Smash Bros. Brawl.
2013[editar]
En la actualidad, desde el año 2013 la empresa Activision es quien posee la licencia de TMNT para producir videojuegos. El primer juego en aparecer fue Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of the Shadows para los servicios de descarga digital en Xbox 360, PlayStation 3 y PC, un videojuego de acción, luchas y plataformas con opción para dos o más jugadores local u online. El siguiente, y por ahora último título aparecido, es Nickelodeon's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, un juego muy parecido al anterior, pero basado en la serie animada del canal de Nickelodeon, que está disponible para las consolas Xbox 360, Wii y Nintendo 3DS (incomprensiblemente, no se lanzó una versión para PlayStation 3).
Juegos de rol[editar]
Las tortugas también fueron adaptadas a un juego de rol de mesa titulado Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles & Other Strangeness1 («Las tortugas ninja mutantes adolescentes y otras cosas extrañas» - traducción no oficial), publicado por Palladium Books en 1985. No solo las tortugas y ratas fueron opciones para animales mutados, otra larga lista de animales también se hizo disponible. Posteriormente dio lugar a otro juego ambientado en un futuro apocalíptico donde la Tierra estaba poblada principalmente por animales antropomorfos, fue llamado: After the Bomb. Palladium perdió los derechos de las Tortugas Ninja en 2000, debido a que la serie animada hizo a las tortugas muy infantiles, a pesar de la protesta de los fanáticos. Palladium aun produce el material de After The Bomb, y no tiene planes de retomar la licencia de las Tortugas Ninja, incluso con el resurgimiento de la serie animada de 2003.
Doblaje[editar]
Personaje
Serie de 1987
Doblaje de laSerie de 1987
Serie de 2003
Doblaje de la Serie de 2003
Serie de 2012
Doblaje de laSerie de 2012
Leonardo Cam Clarke Luis Alfonso Mendoza Mike Sinterklaas Luis Daniel Ramírez (2003-2006), Daniel del Roble (Fast Forward y de Regreso a la Alcantarilla) Jason Biggs Alan Prieto
Michelangelo Townsend Coleman Jorge Roig Wayne Grayson Gabriel Ortiz (2003-2006), Carlo Vázquez (Fast Forward y de Regreso a la Alcantarilla) Greg Cipes Ricardo Bautista
Donatello Barry Gordon César Arias Sam Regal Eduardo Garza Rob Paulsen Javier Olguín
Raphael Rob Paulsen (temporadas 1987–1995)(EE.UU.)
Michael Gough (temporada 1996)(EE.UU.) Jorge Santos Frank Frankson Ricardo Mendoza (2003-2006), Enrique Horiuchi (Fast Forward y de Regreso a la Alcantarilla) Sean Astin Gerardo García
Splinter (Astilla en España) Peter Renaday Carlos Magaña Darren Dunstan César Soto (2003-2006), Rolando De Castro (Fast Forward y de Regreso a la Alcantarilla) Hoon Lee Jorge Badillo
Destructor (Shredder) James Avery (temporadas 1987–1993)
William Martin (temporadas 1994–1996) Herman López Scottie Ray Alfonso Ramírez/Jorge Santos (2003-2006), Ricardo Méndez (Fast Forward y de Regreso a la Alcantarilla) Kevin Michael Richardson Octavio Rojas
April O'Neil Renae Jacobs Mónica Manjarrez Veronica Taylor Cynthia Alfonzo (2003-2006); Rebeca Gómez (Fast Forward y de Regreso a la Alcantarilla) Mae Withman Alondra Hidalgo
Casey Jones Pat Fraley Carlos Íñigo Marc Thompson René García (2003-2006); Igor Cruz (Fast Forward y de Regreso a la Alcantarilla) Josh Peck Irwin Daayán
Karai No Aparece No Aparece Karen Neil Karina Altamirano (2003-2006); Nallely Solís (Fast Forward y de Regreso a la Alcantarilla) Kelly Hu Pamela Cruz
Productos derivados[editar]
Durante la programación de la serie de 1987, la compañía de juguetes Playmates produjo centenares de figuras de acción de TMNT, las cuales se convirtieron los más famosos juguetes coleccionables en ese tiempo. La línea ofreció muchas variantes de las cuatro tortugas, comenzando con las tortugas regulares hasta el granjero Mike y el Clásico rockero Leo. Los personajes secundarios se realizaron con base en sus representaciones de la serie animada, y los empleados de Mirage Studios, la compañía que publica las historietas de las tortugas, diseño muchas de las figuras y vehículos. Cada set incluía por lo menos una nueva versión de cada tortuga, y normalmente incluía nuevas versiones de los personajes secundarios como Shredder y April, e incluso Splinter y Casey Jones. Desde entonces, Playmates ha retomado la licencia (asumiendo que alguna vez hayan dejado la posesión original de los derechos para fabricar los juguetes basados en los personajes) produce juguetes basados en la serie de 2003 y actualmente en la serie del 2012
En febrero de 2004 fue lanzado por Upper Deck un juego de cartas basado en la serie animada de 2003.
La serie original de 1987 de las tortugas de Ninja tuvo dispensadores PEZ (una famosa marca de caramelos estadounidense) hechos basados en los rostros de las cuatro tortugas. Se hicieron dos versiones de cada tortuga. También se han lanzado en 2003 los dispensadores basados en la historieta.
Censura[editar]
Durante la primera llegada de las Tortugas Ninja al Reino Unido, el nombre fue cambiado a "Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles" (Adolescentes Mutantes Tortugas Héroes), puesto que las políticas locales de censura juzgaban que la palabra "ninja" tenía asociaciones y connotaciones demasiado violentas para un programa de televisión de los niños. Por lo tanto, todo lo relacionado con las tortugas tuvo que ser retitulado antes de ser lanzado en el mercado del Reino Unido. Las letra de la canción al principio del show también fue cambiada, eliminando la palabra ninja y cambiando el hecho de que Splinter los entrenaba para ser ninjas, a ser "adolescentes luchadores".
Estas políticas también tuvieron otros efectos, tales como eliminar los nunchakus de Michelangelo (que están prohibidos para aparecer en las películas para menores de 18 años) y generalmente atenuando el uso de las armas de todas las tortugas. Los shuriken o estrellas ninja fueron utilizados en los primeros episodios, pero también desaparecieron en episodios posteriores. En el tercer episodio de la serie original, Michelangelo tuvo brevemente un manriki-gusari y se declarado el maestro de esta técnica. El arma nunca apareció en episodios siguientes ,a partir de la cuarta temporada (segundo intro ) su nunchakus, aun no desaparecieron eventualmente por completo pero fueron sustituidos por una cuerda con un garfio en su extremo ya que Michelangelo usaba la cuerda pero se veian sus nunchakus en sus bolsillos. A partir de la quinta temporada desaparecieron por completo. El arma fue utilizada solo para atrapar a sus enemigos, para desarmarlos o para subir y balancearse. Solamente en la película crossover de las versiones 1987 y 2003 Turtles Forever, que fue para darles un final a ambas, se olvido de esta censura y a Michelangelo volvió a utilizar su arma original los nunchakus.
También se cambió la secuencia de apertura de la serie, ya que en varias veces (en la primera intro) se mostraba los nunchakus de Michelangelo. Las políticas también afectaron a la segunda y tercera película de imagen real, en la que se limitó mucho el uso de sus armas. La serie Ninja Turtles: La nueva mutación con actores reales también tuvo muy poco uso de las armas y los nunchakusde Michelangelo fueron sustituidos por tonfas.
Esta censura, aunque fue impuesta por el Reino Unido, afectó a las emisiones de toda Europa. Por ende, en España los episodios fueron emitidos también con esta misma censura y modificaciones.
Al comienzo de la reaparición en la más reciente versión estas políticas habían sido suprimidas, y no se realizaron ningún cambio a la serie animada de 2003 ( ni a la serie del 2012). Este nuevo show no muestra ningún derramamiento de sangre, pero los personajes son golpeados con más detalle gráfico e incluso en algunas ocasiones terminan con contusiones duraderas en sus cuerpos. El nombre Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles permaneció sin cambios en las emisiones de 2003 y 2012. Como resultado, en el Reino Unido, la serie animada de 1987 todavía es llamada Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles y las nuevas series animadas son llamada Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles.
Tour de conciertos[editar]
Para agregar más popularidad a las tortugas, en Estados Unidos fue llevado a cabo un tour de conciertos durante 1990. El 'Comin' Out of Their Shells Tour' (Tour Saliendo del caparazón) donde se mostraban tortugas con trajes similares a los de las películas tocando en un escenario algunas melodías y un show rutinario: April O'Neil es raptada por Shredder, y las tortugas tienen que rescatarla. También se realizó el mercadeo de pago por evento, y se lanzó un álbum que contenía las canciones del show. La lista de las pistas es la siguiente:
Coming Out of Our Shells!
Sing About It
Tubin'
Skipping Stones
Pizza Power
Walk Straight
No Treaties
Cowabunga
April Ballad
Count on Us
El show original fue lanzado en video así como un "detrás de las cámaras". En 1994 dos videos de veinticinco minutos fueron lanzados mostrando algunas de las canciones de este tour más algunas nuevas tonadas. Fueron llamados "We Wish You a Turtle Christmas" (Te deseamos una navidad tortuga), y "Turtle Tunes" (Tonadas tortuga). En Chile, el show fue auspiciado por Pepsi, presentándose en gimnasio "La Tortuga" del puerto militar de Talcahuano.
Véase también[editar]
Anexo:Episodios de las Tortugas Ninja (1987)
Anexo:Episodios de las Tortugas Ninja (2003)
Referencias[editar]
Volver arriba↑ WUJCIK Erick, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles & Other Strangeness, Palladium Books, Westland -Michigan-, 1985, p. 112, ISBN 0-916211-14-2
Bibliografía[editar]
Eastman, Kevin (2002). Kevin Eastman's Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Artobiography. Los Ángeles: Heavy Metal. ISBN 1-882931-85-8.
Wiater, Stanley (1991). The Official Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles * Treasury. New York: Villard. ISBN 0-679-73484-8.